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1.
In many countries, distribution grid tariffs are being reformed to adapt to the new realities of an electricity system with distributed energy resources. In Europe, legislative proposals have been made to harmonize these reforms across country borders. Many stakeholders have argued that distribution tariffs are a local affair, while the European institutions argued that there can be spillovers to other countries, which could justify a more harmonized approach. In this paper, we quantify these spillovers in a simplified numerical example to give insight and an order of magnitude. We look at different scenarios, and find that the spillovers can be both negative and positive. To be able to quantify these effects, we developed a long-run market equilibrium model that captures the wholesale market effects of distribution grid tariffs. The problem is formulated as a non-cooperative game involving consumers, generating companies and distribution system operators in a stylized electricity market.  相似文献   
2.
Water tariffs frequently seek to achieve multiple objectives, some of which may conflict. However, the nature and rationale for those conflicts is not always understood or appreciated. This paper consider how localised natural and human phenomena can shape the extent to which so-called ‘best practice’ economic regulation and pricing can be expected to take hold in Victoria and South Australia. Overall, we find that there is room for improvement in the institutional arrangements that circumscribe water pricing in some cases, but direct comparisons are not always helpful, especially when the underlying hydrology, topography and demography of states differs markedly.  相似文献   
3.
针对多目标绿色可重入混合流水车间调度问题(RHFSP)的特点,在机器分配和工序排序的基础上引入分时电价机制,构建了以最小化最大完工时间、总能耗成本和碳排放为目标的绿色调度优化模型,提出了一种改进的多目标文化基因算法(MOMA)来求解该问题,通过数值实验验证了所设计的MOMA算法的可行性。实验结果表明MOMA算法在非劣解的收敛性、多样性和支配性指标方面都显著优于多目标蚁狮优化算法(MOALO)、多目标粒子群优化算法(MOPSO)和带精英策略的非支配排序遗传算法(NSGA-Ⅱ),四种算法的分布性指标无显著差异。所提出的模型能够使企业有效避开高电价时段作业,合理转移用电负荷,达到降低总用电成本和碳排放的目的。  相似文献   
4.
目的对营养包生产企业实验室的检测能力进行考察并对产品质量进行评估。方法抽取国内6家主要生产企业产品,参照CNAS-GL 005技术要求,制备考核样并检验其均匀性。在6家企业实验室进行室间比对,检测指标维生素A、维生素D_3、维生素B_1、维生素B_2、钙、铁、锌分别参照国标方法GB 5009.82-2016、GB 5009.82-2016、GB 5009.84-2016、GB 5009.85-2016、GB 5009.92-2016、GB 5009.90-2016、GB 5009.14-2017。结果通过单因素方差分析判别,考核样混合均匀;依据考核样检测结果进行Z评分,参与评估的6家企业检测能力均为"满意";实际产品检测结果与GB 22570-2014相比,除了1号实验室的产品2的钙元素结果含量略高于标准上限,其他含量均在国标许可范围内。结论我国主要的营养包生产企业基本具备把控产品质量的检测能力,抽检产品必需成分的含量符合GB 22570-2014相关指标限定值。  相似文献   
5.
本文主要介绍了基于断裂力学的运输容器防脆性断裂安全设计,重点研究了防脆断条件中应力强度因子的计算方法。经分析,可以得出如下结论:RCC-M第Ⅰ卷附录ZG中的应力强度因子计算考虑了应力非线性分布和塑性区的影响,考虑因素比较全面,推荐采用。  相似文献   
6.
As the debate on the fairness of water metering continues, the Hotwells metering trial has revealed two new contentious issues which could add credibility to the arguments of those who are opposed to a universal system. One could not have predicted that the safety of electrical appliances would make media headlines on the subject of water metering, or that supporters of rateable value should object to being charged by measured floor area when these two systems are so similar
This paper sets out to concentrate on two particular problems which were encountered during the consultative and installation phases of the Hotwells trial. Whilst the author would not claim to be able to provide definitive answers, he can share the approaches taken by the Company on apportionment and electrical earthing, and highlight I-the most important factors.  相似文献   
7.
Beginning in 2013, China's photovoltaic (PV) market-development strategy witnessed a series of policy changes aimed at making distributed-generation PV (DG PV) development an equal priority with large-scale PV development. This article reviews the DG PV policy changes since 2013 and examines their effect on China's domestic DG PV market. Based on a 2014 survey of DG PV market and policy participants, we present cost and time breakdowns for installing DG PV projects in China, and we identify the main barriers to DG PV installation. We also use a cash flow model to determine the relative economic attractiveness of DG PV in several eastern provinces in China. The main factors constraining DG PV deployment in China include financial barriers resulting from the structure of the self-consumption feed-in tariff (FIT), ambivalence about DG PV within grid companies, complicated ownership structures for buildings/rooftops/businesses, and the inherent time lag in policy implementation from the central government to provincial and local governments. We conclude with policy implications and suggestions in the context of DG PV policy changes the Chinese government implemented in September 2014.  相似文献   
8.
从两个方面对某地市趸售市场及其发展趋势进行了分析,探讨了控股(代管)模式对市场拓展的影响,讨论了控股(代管)模式下趸售市场拓展面临的制约因素,并提出了一些应对策略。  相似文献   
9.
This paper presents a residential hybrid thermal/electrical grid-connected home energy system (HES), including a fuel-cell with combined heat and power and a battery-based energy storage system. The minimum operation cost of this integrated energy system is achieved by proper scheduling of different energy resources, found by applying a new powerful optimization algorithm, the Hyper-Spherical Search (HSS) algorithm, to the system's scheduling problem. This is the first time that HSS is used to face the energy resource dispatch problem. The HSS has been only tested in mathematical problems in the previous study. The optimization procedure generates an efficient look-up table in which the powers generated by different energy resources are determined for all time intervals. The effect of different electricity tariffs for purchasing electricity from the main grid on the operation costs of the system is investigated. Moreover, a battery is properly dispatched in the energy system to decrease the operation costs. A real load demand is used in the simulation. The results of HSS are compared with the harmony search algorithm and the colonial competitive algorithm to show the power and effectiveness of HSS to find the optimal dispatch strategy of energy resources for the first time. This is the first time that HSS is compared with CCA. The results of this paper are expected to contribute to home energy systems and real projects.  相似文献   
10.
针对电力市场用户群庞大,交易过程中售电套餐选择困难的问题,在Spark环境下设计了一种售电套餐推荐方法,同时也解决了售电套餐推荐过程中在大数据环境下的可扩展性及实时性问题。首先,计算出每个套餐属性的权重值,从而计算得到售电套餐综合相似度。然后,计及用户和套餐两方面提出一种售电套餐推荐方法,实现售电套餐的精准推荐。实验表明,提出的推荐方法能够明显提高推荐的准确度,并且在分布式环境下具有良好的推荐效率和可扩展性。  相似文献   
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