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1.
Garzan oil field is located at the south east of Turkey. It is a mature oil field and the reservoir is fractured carbonate reservoir. After producing about 1% original oil in place (OOIP) reservoir pressure started to decline. Waterflooding was started in order to support reservoir pressure and also to enhance oil production in 1960. Waterflooding improved the oil recovery but after years of flooding water breakthrough at the production wells was observed. This increased the water/oil ratio at the production wells. In order to enhance oil recovery again different techniques were investigated. Chemical enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods are gaining attention all over the world for oil recovery. Surfactant injection is an effective way for interfacial tension (IFT) reduction and wettability reversal. In this study, 31 different types of chemicals were studied to specify the effects on oil production. This paper presents solubility of surfactants in brine, IFT and contact angle measurements, imbibition tests, and lastly core flooding experiments. Most of the chemicals were incompatible with Garzan formation water, which has high divalent ion concentration. In this case, the usage of 2-propanol as co-surfactant yielded successful results for stability of the selected chemical solutions. The results of the wettability test indicated that both tested cationic and anionic surfactants altered the wettability of the carbonate rock from oil-wet to intermediate-wet. The maximum oil recovery by imbibition test was reached when core was exposed 1-ethly ionic liquid after imbibition in formation water. Also, after core flooding test, it is concluded that considerable amount of oil can be recovered from Garzan reservoir by waterflooding alone if adverse effects of natural fractures could be eliminated.  相似文献   
2.
Objective

To provide a basis for the selection of suitable emulsifiers in oil-in-water emulsions used as tissue analogs for MRI experiments. Three different emulsifiers were investigated with regard to their ability to stabilize tissue-like oil-in-water emulsions. Furthermore, MR signal properties of the emulsifiers themselves and influences on relaxation times and ADC values of the aqueous phase were investigated.

Materials and methods

Polysorbate 60, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and soy lecithin were used as emulsifiers. MR characteristics of emulsifiers were assessed in aqueous solutions and their function as a stabilizer was examined in oil-in-water emulsions of varying fat content (10, 20, 30, 40, 50%). Stability and homogeneity of the oil-in-water emulsions were evaluated with a delay of 3 h and 9 h after preparation using T1 mapping and visual control. Signal properties of the emulsifiers were investigated by 1H-MRS in aqueous emulsifier solutions. Relaxometry and diffusion weighted MRI (DWI) were performed to investigate the effect of various emulsifier concentrations on relaxation times (T1 and T2) and ADC values of aqueous solutions.

Results

Emulsions stabilized by polysorbate 60 or soy lecithin were stable and homogeneous across all tested fat fractions. In contrast, emulsions with SDS showed a significantly lower stability and homogeneity. Recorded T1 maps revealed marked creaming of oil droplets in almost all of the emulsions with SDS. The spectral analysis showed several additional signals for polysorbate and SDS. However, lecithin remained invisible in 1H-MRS. Relaxometry and DWI revealed different influences of the emulsifiers on water: Polysorbate and SDS showed only minor effects on relaxation times and ADC values of aqueous solutions, whereas lecithin showed a strong decrease in both relaxation times (r1,lecithin = 0.11 wt.%−1 s−1, r2,lecithin = 0.57 wt.%−1 s−1) and ADC value (Δ(ADC)lecithin =  − 0.18 × 10–3 mm2/s⋅wt.%) with increasing concentration.

Conclusion

Lecithin is suggested as the preferred emulsifier of oil-in-water emulsions in MRI as it shows a high stabilizing ability and remains invisible in MRI experiments. In addition, lecithin is suitable as an alternative means of adjusting relaxation times and ADC values of water.

  相似文献   
3.
In this study, dilute chemical bath deposition technique has been used to deposit CdZnS thin films on soda-lime glass substrates. The structural, morphological, optoelectronic properties of as-grown films have been investigated as a function of different Zn2+ precursor concentrations. The X-ray diffractogram of CdS thin-film reveals a peak corresponding to (002) plane with wurtzite structure, and the peak shift has been observed with the increase of the Zn2+ concentration upon formation of CdZnS thin film. From morphological studies, it has been revealed that the diluted chemical bath deposition technique provides homogeneous distribution of film on the substrate even at a lower concentration of Zn2+. Optical characterization has shown that the transparency of the film is influenced by Zn2+ concentration and when the Zn2+ concentration is varied from 0 M to 0.0256 M, bandgap values of resulting films range from 2.42 eV to 3.90 eV while. Furthermore, electrical properties have shown that with increasing zinc concentration the resistivity of the film increases. Finally, numerical simulation validates and suggests that CdZnS buffer layer with composition of 0.0032 M Zn2+ concentration would be a promising candidate in CIGS solar cell.  相似文献   
4.
Forschung im Ingenieurwesen - Das Arbeitsmittel in Wärmepumpen unterliegt einer Vielzahl von Anforderungen, welche für einen effizienten und sicheren Betrieb eingehalten werden...  相似文献   
5.
While protein medications are promising for treatment of cancer and autoimmune diseases, challenges persist in terms of development and injection stability of high-concentration formulations. Here, the extensional flow properties of protein-excipient solutions are examined via dripping-onto-substrate extensional rheology, using a model ovalbumin (OVA) protein and biocompatible excipients polysorbate 20 (PS20) and 80 (PS80). Despite similar PS structures, differences in extensional flow are observed based on PS identity in two regimes: at moderate total concentrations where surface tension differences drive changes in extensional flow behavior, and at small PS:OVA ratios, which impact the onset of weakly elastic flow behavior. Undesirable elasticity is observed in ultra-concentrated formulations, independent of PS identity; higher PS contents are required to observe these effects than in analogous polymeric excipient solutions. These studies reveal novel extensional flow behaviors in protein-excipient solutions, and provide a straightforward methodology for assessing the extensional flow stability of new protein-excipient formulations.  相似文献   
6.
A set of novel hydrazone derivatives were synthesized and analyzed for their biological activities. The compounds were tested for their inhibitory effect on the phosphorylating activity of the protein kinase CK2, and their antioxidant activity was also determined in three commonly used assays. The hydrazones were evaluated for their radical scavenging against the DPPH, ABTS and peroxyl radicals. Several compounds have been identified as good antioxidants as well as potent protein kinase CK2 inhibitors. Most hydrazones containing a 4-N(CH3)2 residue or perfluorinated phenyl rings showed high activity in the radical-scavenging assays and possess nanomolar IC50 values in the kinase assays.  相似文献   
7.
To investigate the evolution of the structural and enhanced magnetic properties of GdMnO3 systems induced by the substitution of Mn with Cr, polycrystalline GdMn1-xCrxO3 samples were synthesized via solid-state reactions. XRD characterization shows that all GdMn1-xCrxO3 compounds with single-phase structures crystallize well and that Cr3+ ions entering the lattice sites of GdMnO3 induce structural distortion. SEM results indicate that the grain size of the synthesized samples (a few microns) decreases as the Cr substitution concentration increases. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy reveals that vacancy-type defects occur in GdMn1-xCrxO3 ceramics and that the vacancy size and concentration clearly change with the Cr content. The temperature and field dependence of the magnetization curves show that Cr substitution significantly influences the magnetic ordering of the gadolinium sublattice, improving the weak ferromagnetic transition temperature and magnetization of GdMn1-xCrxO3. The enhanced magnetization of GdMn1-xCrxO3 is closely related to the vacancy defect concentration.  相似文献   
8.
Monitoring the temperature in liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage tanks on ships is important for the safety of maritime navigation. In addition, accurate temperature measurement is also required for commercial transactions. Temperature and pressure define the density of liquid hydrogen, which is directly linked to trading interests. In this study, we developed and tested a liquid hydrogen temperature monitoring system that uses platinum resistance sensors with a nominal electrical resistance of approximately 1000 Ω at room temperature, PT-1000, for marine applications. The temperature measurements were carried out using a newly developed temperature monitoring system under different pressure conditions. The measured values are compared with a calibrated reference PT-1000 resistance thermometer. We confirm a measurement accuracy of ±50 mK in a pressure range of 0.1 MPa–0.5 MPa.  相似文献   
9.
10.
The noninvasive sampling of dermal interstitial fluid (ISF) for the monitoring of clinical biomarkers is a greatly appealing area of research. The identification of molecular biomarkers in biological fluids has been accelerated with -omics analyses but remains limited in ISF because of its time-consuming and complex extraction process. Here, the generation of microneedle (MN) patches made of superabsorbent acrylate-based hydrogels for the rapid sampling of dermal ISF is described to explore its proteome. In depth, iterative optimization allows the identification of novel acrylate-based compositions with the required chemical, mechanical, and biocompatibility properties allowing proteomic analysis of the extracted ISF for the first time after sampling with swelling MNs. The generated MN arrays show no cytotoxic effect, successfully cross the stratum corneum, and can collect up to 6 µL of dermal ISF in 10 min in vivo. Proteomics lead to the detection of 176 clinically relevant biomarkers in the collected samples validating the use of ISF as a relevant bodily fluid for disease monitoring and diagnostic. Importantly, it is discovered that extraction fingerprint is strongly dependent on the MNs chemistry, and thus specific biomarkers could be selectively extracted by tuning the composition of the patch, making the system versatile and specific.  相似文献   
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