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The paper describes a novel experiment characterized by the development of a confocal geometry in an external Micro-PIXE set-up. The position of X-ray optics in front of the X-ray detector and its proper alignment with respect to the proton micro-beam focus provided the possibility of carrying out 3D Micro-PIXE analysis. As a first application, depth intensity profiles of the major elements that compose the patina layer of a quaternary bronze alloy were measured. A simulation approach of the 3D Micro-PIXE data deduced elemental concentration profiles in rather good agreement with corresponding results obtained by electron probe micro-analysis from a cross-sectioned patina sample. With its non-destructive and depth-resolving properties, as well as its feasibility in atmospheric pressure, 3D Micro-PIXE seems especially suited for investigations in the field of cultural heritage.  相似文献   
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Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer and accounts for about three quarters of all skin cancer deaths. Especially at an advanced stage, its treatment is challenging, and survival rates are very low. In previous studies, we showed that the constituents of the roots of Onosma paniculata as well as a synthetic derivative of the most active constituent showed promising results in metastatic melanoma cell lines. In the current study, we address the question whether we can generate further derivatives with optimized activity by synthesis. Therefore, we prepared 31, mainly novel shikonin derivatives and screened them in different melanoma cell lines (WM9, WM164, and MUG-Mel2 cells) using the XTT viability assay. We identified (R)-1-(1,4-dihydro-5,8-dihydroxy-1,4-dioxonaphthalen-2-yl)-4-methylpent-3-enyl 2-cyclopropyl-2-oxoacetate as a novel derivative with even higher activity. Furthermore, pharmacological investigations including the ApoToxGloTM Triplex assay, LDH assay, and cell cycle measurements revealed that this compound induced apoptosis and reduced cells in the G1 phase accompanied by an increase of cells in the G2/M phase. Moreover, it showed hardly any effects on the cell membrane integrity. However, it also exhibited cytotoxicity against non-tumorigenic cells. Nevertheless, in summary, we could show that shikonin derivatives might be promising drug leads in the treatment of melanoma.  相似文献   
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Alginate as a versatile naturally occurring biomaterial has found widespread use in the biomedical field due to its unique features such as biocompatibility and biodegradability. The ability of its semipermeable hydrogels to provide a favourable microenvironment for clinically relevant cells made alginate encapsulation a leading technology for immunoisolation, 3D culture, cryopreservation as well as cell and drug delivery. The aim of this work is the evaluation of structural properties and swelling behaviour of the core-shell capsules for the encapsulation of multipotent stromal cells (MSCs), their 3D culture and cryopreservation using slow freezing. The cells were encapsulated in core-shell capsules using coaxial electrospraying, cultured for 35 days and cryopreserved. Cell viability, metabolic activity and cell–cell interactions were analysed. Cryopreservation of MSCs-laden core-shell capsules was performed according to parameters pre-selected on cell-free capsules. The results suggest that core-shell capsules produced from the low viscosity high-G alginate are superior to high-M ones in terms of stability during in vitro culture, as well as to solid beads in terms of promoting formation of viable self-assembled cellular structures and maintenance of MSCs functionality on a long-term basis. The application of 0.3 M sucrose demonstrated a beneficial effect on the integrity of capsules and viability of formed 3D cell assemblies, as compared to 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) alone. The proposed workflow from the preparation of core-shell capsules with self-assembled cellular structures to the cryopreservation appears to be a promising strategy for their off-the-shelf availability.  相似文献   
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In this paper, the structuring of liquid oils, also known as oleogelation, is systematically investigated for the first time using a quasi-quaternary mixing system approach. Native waxes with different quantities of wax esters (WE), n-alkanes (hydrocarbons (HC)), fatty acids (FA), and fatty alcohols (FaOH) are applied in mixtures with hydrolyzed waxes to systematically change the composition. Hydrolyzed waxes contain high levels of FA and FaOH. The model systems are investigated on microscopic level (brightfield light microscopy (BFM), cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM)) as well as on their macroscopic properties (rheology, gel hardness) and calorimetric behavior (differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)). It is found that sunflower wax (SFW)-based gels (12% structurant) become less hard on any admixture. Beeswax (BW)-based gels show significant increases in hardness when 25% and 50% (w/w) hydrolyzate are admixed. This could be related to stepwise crystallization. Further analysis reveals that the dissolution/melting behavior of the wax ester mixtures can be surprisingly well described as ideal solubility of a single pseudocomponent. The approach to unravel the individual contributions of the different species present in waxes is successful and marks a first step to better understand the systematic of wax functionality as oleogelators. Practical Application: The substitution of hardstock fats in structured oil phases is of interest for two reasons. The improved nutritional profile oleogels offer are beneficial for public health while the elimination of palm oil based ingredients appears to be a general public desire. Among the technical solutions for non-TAG oil structuring waxes are very promising. This is primarily due to their availability, prior consumption, potentially low cost for functionality. Currently waxes are technically and scientifically wrongly treated as single components. In order to better utilize the potential of waxes and design future sourcing strategies it is necessary to understand the wax functionality at a compositional/molecular level. This contribution marks the first step into this direction by considering classes of molecules with respect to their contribution to functionality. This understanding is considered as a key for future compositional design.  相似文献   
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Universal Access in the Information Society - Access to trustworthy information is a premise for participation in a democratic society. However, locating useful and valid information may not be a...  相似文献   
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This study examined problematic gaming behavior and depressive tendencies among people who play different types of online-games. Other game-related variables were investigated to determine if other differences between three game types could be established. Participants in the current research (n = 468) can be classified into three independent groups. Subjected users either solely played massive multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) or they preferred online-ego-shooters (OES) or real-time-strategy games (RTS). Results indicate that MMORPG users show more often problematic gaming behavior, depressive tendencies and lower self-esteem compared to users playing other online-games. MMORPG users reported to playing significantly more often in order to escape from real-life problems, which might be a valuable coping strategy but might also lead to problematic gaming behavior.  相似文献   
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Heart rate variability (HRV) represents the cardiovascular control mediated by the autonomic nervous system and other mechanisms. In the established task force HRV monitoring different cardiovascular control mechanisms can approximately be identified at typical frequencies of heart rate oscillations by power spectral analysis. HRV measures assessing complex and fractal behavior partly improved clinical risk stratification. However, their relationship to (patho-)physiology is not sufficiently explored. Objective of the present work is the introduction of complexity measures of different physiologically relevant time scales. This is achieved by a new concept of the autonomic information flow (AIF) analysis which was designed according to task force HRV. First applications show that different time scales of AIF improve the risk stratification of patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and cardiac arrest patients in comparison to standard HRV. Each group's significant time scales correspond to their respective pathomechanisms.  相似文献   
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