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1.
The conversion of food industry by-products to compounds with high added value is nowadays a significant topic, for social, environmental, and economic reasons. In this paper, calcium phosphate-based materials were obtained from black scabbardfish (Aphanopus carbo) bones and grey triggerfish (Balistes capriscus) skin, which are two of the most abundant fish by-products of Madeira Island. Different calcination temperatures between 400 and 1000°C were employed. Materials obtained from calcination of bones of black scabbard fish were composed by homogeneous mixtures of hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, HAp) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-Ca3(PO4)2, β-TCP). Because of the high biocompatibility of HAp and the good resorbability of β-TCP, these natural biphasic materials could be very relevant in the field of biomaterials, as bone grafts. The ratio between HAp and β-TCP in the biphasic compound was dependent on the calcination temperature. Differently, the material obtained from skin of grey triggerfish contained HAp as the main phase, together with small amounts of other mineral phases, such as halite and rhenanite, which are known to enhance osteogenesis when used as bone substitutes. In both cases, the increase of calcination temperature led to an increase in the particles size with a consequent decrease in their specific surface area. These results demonstrate that from the fish by-products of the most consumed fishes in Madeira Island it is possible to obtain bioceramic materials with tunable composition and particle morphology, which could be promising materials for the biomedical field.  相似文献   
2.
Topics in Catalysis - In this work, a simple thermal-catalytic system was used to valorize peanut shells (Arachis hypogaea), the residual biomass from the peanut industry. To accomplish this...  相似文献   
3.
The nucleotide analog sofosbuvir, licensed for the treatment of hepatitis C, recently revealed activity against the Zika virus (ZIKV) in vitro and in animal models. However, the ZIKV genetic barrier to sofosbuvir has not yet been characterized. In this study, in vitro selection experiments were performed in infected human hepatoma cell lines. Increasing drug pressure significantly delayed viral breakthrough (p = 0.029). A double mutant in the NS5 gene (V360L/V607I) emerged in 3 independent experiments at 40–80 µM sofosbuvir resulting in a 3.9 ± 0.9-fold half- maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) shift with respect to the wild type (WT) virus. A triple mutant (C269Y/V360L/V607I), detected in one experiment at 80 µM, conferred a 6.8-fold IC50 shift with respect to the WT. Molecular dynamics simulations confirmed that the double mutant V360L/V607I impacts the binding mode of sofosbuvir, supporting its role in sofosbuvir resistance. Due to the distance from the catalytic site and to the lack of reliable structural data, the contribution of C269Y was not investigated in silico. By a combination of sequence analysis, phenotypic susceptibility testing, and molecular modeling, we characterized a double ZIKV NS5 mutant with decreased sofosbuvir susceptibility. These data add important information to the profile of sofosbuvir as a possible lead for anti-ZIKV drug development.  相似文献   
4.
Vivianite, a blue pigment employed in the past practically only in Northern and Central Europe, but with very limited use, was identified in an early sixteenth century painting, stylistically with Flemish features, from a church in Portugal. The identification of this iron phosphate mineral was made by SEM‐EDS based on the atomic ratio between phosphorus and iron in layers of blue paint (area analysis) and in particles of these same layers (spot analysis). This painting, about which there is no document to prove its authorship, becomes the first case, known in detail, of a sixteenth century painting containing vivianite. Moreover, this find and the presence of a chalk ground, also identified, strongly support the hypothesis of being a Flemish painting.  相似文献   
5.
This paper addresses the problem of power control in a multihop wireless network supporting multicast traffic. We face the problem of forwarding packet traffic to multicast group members while meeting constraints on the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) at the intended receivers. First, we present a distributed algorithm which, given the set of multicast senders and their corresponding receivers, provides an optimal solution when it exists, which minimizes the total transmit power. When no optimal solution can be found for the given set of multicast senders and receivers, we introduce a distributed, joint scheduling and power control algorithm which eliminates the weak connections and tries to maximize the number of successful multicast transmissions. The algorithm allows the other senders to solve the power control problem and minimize the total transmit power. We show that our distributed algorithm converges to the optimal solution when it exists, and performs close to centralized, heuristic algorithms that have been proposed to address the joint scheduling and power control problem.  相似文献   
6.
Optical packet assembly is a key function to support inter-working between TCP/IP networks and optical packet-switched networks. It is characterized by the assembly delay and by the segment aggregation needed to form an optical packet. These counter-balancing aspects depend on several environment variables, such as the TCP parameters, the access link speed, the optical packet size whose effects are studied in this paper. Performance evaluations are obtained by extensive simulations in terms of send rate of TCP flows, fairness, efficiency, and assembly delay. Some guidelines in the design of optical packets that take into account the results presented are given.  相似文献   
7.
A SAXS method for the quantitative assessment of the morphology of polymer layered silicate nanocomposites is proposed. Fitting the SAXS patterns, the number of clay layers, the periodicity of the layers in the tactoids, the thickness of the regions interposed between the clay platelets and their distributions can be measured. A good agreement with TEM data was obtained, avoiding the inconsistencies with microscopical observations often reported in the literature.  相似文献   
8.
Investigated whether (1) feminist identity development for women therapists was related to their use of feminist therapy behaviors (FTBs) and (2) feminist identity development and use of FTBs for women therapists were related to self-identification as a feminist therapist. 153 women psychologists (aged 30–77 yrs) were administered a women's issues in therapy questionnaire, which included a short version of the Feminist Identity Scale (FIS; K. M. Rickard, 1989, 1990). Ss were categorized into stages of feminine identity development according to their scores on 4 subscales of the FIS: Passive-Acceptance (PA), Revelation (REV), Embeddedness (EMB), and Synthesis (SYN). Ss scoring high on SYN and REV, and low on PA, reported greater use of FTBs; scores on the EMB were not related to the use of FTBs. All 4 subscales were predictive of women therapists who self-identified as feminist therapists. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)  相似文献   
9.
This column goes beyond previous insider analyses to identify a framework for a taxonomy of insider threats including both malicious and inadvertent actions by insiders that put organizations or their resources at some risk. The framework includes factors reflecting the organization, the individual, the information technology system, and the environment.  相似文献   
10.
Metastasis is the process whereby cancer cells migrate from the primary tumour site to colonise the surrounding or distant tissue or organ. Metastasis is the primary cause of cancer-related mortality and approximately half of all cancer patients present at diagnosis with some form of metastasis. Consequently, there is a clear need to better understand metastasis in order to develop new tools to combat this process. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression and play an important role in cancer development and progression including in the metastatic process. Particularly important are the roles that miRNAs play in the interaction between tumour cells and non-tumoral cells of the tumour microenvironment (TME), a process mediated largely by circulating miRNAs contained primarily in extracellular vesicles (EVs). In this review, we outline the accumulating evidence for the importance of miRNAs in the communication between tumour cells and the cells of the TME in the context of the pre-metastatic and metastatic niche.  相似文献   
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