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1.
Polymer electrets have revealed great potential application in electromechanical devices because of the low weight, large quasi-piezoelectric sensitivity, and excellent flexibility. For an electret, a permanent and macroscopic electric field exists on the surface, principally led by a macroscopic electrostatic charge on the surface or a net orientation of polar groups inside the object. Here, progress in the development of polymer electrets is reviewed. After a brief retrospect of the research courses and those typical polymer electrets that are classified into fluorine polymer and nonfluorine polymer, we present a survey on the charging methods, including corona, soft X-ray, contact, thermal and monoenergetic particle beams. The latest representative applications (i.e., power harvesting, sensors, field effect transistors, and biomedicine) based on polymer electrets are also summarized. Finally, we complete this review with a discussion on perspectives and challenges in this field.  相似文献   
2.
支婷  刘颖  周华春  张宏科 《电子学报》2021,49(8):1653-1664
随着互联网规模的不断扩大以及应用场景的多元化,传统网络无法很好地满足新业务的动态多样化需求,因此国内外对未来网络展开了深入研究.本文首先介绍了未来互联网体系架构的研究现状.其次,介绍了具备"三层、两域"特征的智慧标识网络(Smart Identifier NETwork,SINET)体系架构,然后重点阐述了SINET服务机理在服务的命名与解析、路由机制、服务缓存、移动性、传输控制机制、可扩展性、绿色节能等关键技术方面取得的研究进展,并进一步详细分析了SINET服务机理的安全性.最后总结了SINET面临的挑战,对SINET服务机理在大规模场景部署中可能存在的问题做出讨论.  相似文献   
3.
To investigate the effect of cooking temperature (55, 65, 75, 85 and 95 °C) on texture and flavour binding of braised sauce porcine skin (BSPS), sensory acceptance, microstructure and flavour-binding capacity were investigated during the processing of BSPS. Samples cooked at 85 and 95 °C showed better texture and aroma scores. Hardness and chewiness of BSPS were obviously improved at 85 and 95 °C than control group. Collagen structure was significantly destroyed over 85 °C. The porcine skin collagen heated at 85 and 95 °C showed relatively higher flavour-binding capacity than other samples. The improvement of texture of BSPS was mainly attributed to the degradation of collagen. Higher aroma scores of BSPS were related to intense binding abilities with aroma compounds at 85 and 95 °C. Cooking at 85 or 95 °C could be an optimal cooking temperature for BSPS.  相似文献   
4.
氢脆具有很强的微观组织敏感性,威胁着各类高强结构材料的安全服役.采用激光-电弧复合焊工艺对BS960E型高强钢进行焊接,并对接头在原位电化学充氢的条件下进行慢应变速率(10-5s-1)拉伸试验,结合微观组织和断裂特征进行分析并对接头的氢脆行为进行研究.结果 表明,焊接热循环所形成的富马氏体中的细晶区可以使接头表现出一定的氢脆敏感性,马氏体较大的氢扩散系数和较低的氢溶解度以及氢在晶界上的快速扩散是引起接头对氢脆敏感的主要原因,通过控制焊接工艺参数可抑制焊接热循环所引起的马氏体转变量,能够降低BS960E型高强钢激光-电弧复合焊接头的氢脆敏感性.  相似文献   
5.
Exocytosis plays an essential role in the communication between cells in the nervous system. Understanding the regulation of neurotransmitter release during exocytosis and the amount of neurotransmitter content that is stored in vesicles is of importance, as it provides fundamental insights to understand how the brain works and how neurons elicit a certain behavior. In this minireview, we summarize recent progress in amperometric measurements for monitoring exocytosis in single cells and electrochemical cytometry measurements of vesicular neurotransmitter content in individual vesicles. Important steps have increased our understanding of the different mechanisms of exocytosis. Increasing evidence is firmly establishing that partial release is the primary mechanism of release in multiple cell types.  相似文献   
6.
The exploitation of recycled carbonaceous catalysts from renewable biomass resources such as chitin is a crucial issue for the development of the sustainable society. In this article, the chitin-based N and O doped carbon microspheres (ChC) were fabricated by a simple dissolution, sol–gel transformation, and the carbonization methods. Subsequently, the novel magnetic Ag-Fe3O4@chitin-based carbon microspheres catalyst (MChC) was successfully constructed through the in situ redox reaction. The as-prepared MChC possessed rich micropores with high-surface area, and a narrow size distribution (50–120 μm). The Ag-Fe3O4 nanoparticles were immobilized through the interaction with C, N, and O atoms in the pores of MChC. The reduction of 4-nitrophenol was applied to evaluate the catalytic activity of MChC. 4-Nitrophenol (4-NP) could be fully reduced to 4-aminophenol (4-AP) in 5 min with the catalyst MChC-45. Moreover, MChC could be collected in solution with an external magnet in 8 s and remained relatively high-catalytic activity after 10 cycle times. This work provided novel ideas for the fabrication of doped carbon material from biomass and promoted its utilization in nanocatalytic applications.  相似文献   
7.
Crosslinking of polyolefin elastomer (POE, ENGAGE™ 8480) with Dicumyl Peroxide (DCP) can have effects on its crystallization dynamics, crystal structure, and properties. The POE crosslinked uniformly has significantly lower crystalline ability than the one with only amorphous phase crosslinked, which, in turn, has weaker crystalline ability than neat POE. The crystallinity and melting point depend on how the POE is crosslinked. The neat POE and POE crosslinked in amorphous phase only, are investigated with DSC and in-situ tensile/synchrotron radiation (WAXD/SAXS). In situ tensile/synchrotron X-ray during a uniaxial stretching process indicates that severe crystal fragmentation is observed at a strain around 45%, and with further increase in strain. The stress in the crosslinked POE is significantly larger than neat POE. For both samples, crystal orientation increases sharply within the strain range up to 88% where orientation-induced new crystals aligned in stretching direction are observed. The long period increases more in stretching direction for the crosslinked POE, consistent with larger stress in this sample, and the stress difference is more pronounced at large strains (27.3 vs. 10.9 MPa at a strain 435%). Permanent set of the crosslinked POE is smaller, consistent with less oriented crystals observed after the test for permanent set.  相似文献   
8.
9.
Grain refinement is critical for fabricating high-quality Al-Si casting components in the application of automobile and aerospace industries,while the well-known Si-poisoning effect makes it difficult.Nbbased refiners offer an effective method to refine Al-Si casting alloys,but their anti Si-poisoning capability is far from being understood.In this work,the grain refining mechanism and the anti Si-poisoning effect in the Al-10 Si/Al-5 Nb-B system were systematically investigated by combining transmission electron microscope,first-principles calculations,and thermodynamic calculations.It is revealed that NbB2provides the main nucleation site in the Al-10 Si ingot inoculated by 0.1 wt.%Nb Al-5 Nb-B refiner.The exposed Nb atoms on the(0001)NbB2and(1-100)NbB2surface can be substituted by Al to form(Al,Nb)B2intermedia layers.In addition,a layer of NbAl3-like compound(NbAl3')can cover the surface of NbB2with the orientation relation of(1-100)[11-20]NbB2//(110)[110]NbAl3'.Both of the(Al,Nb)B2and NbAl3'intermedia layers contribute to enhancing the nucleation potency of NbB2particles.These discoveries provide fundamental insight to the grain refining mechanism of the Nb-B based refiners for Al-Si casting alloys and are expected to guide the future development of stronger refiners for Al-Si casting alloys.  相似文献   
10.
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