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1.
Reliable prediction of flooding conditions is needed for sizing and operating packed extraction columns. Due to the complex interplay of physicochemical properties, operational parameters and the packing-specific properties, it is challenging to develop accurate semi-empirical or rigorous models with a high validity range. State of the art models may therefore fail to predict flooding accurately. To overcome this problem, a data-driven model based on Gaussian processes is developed to predict flooding for packed liquid-liquid and high-pressure extraction columns. The optimized Gaussian process for the liquid-liquid extraction column results in an average absolute relative error (AARE) of 15.23 %, whereas the algorithm for the high-pressure extraction column results in an AARE of 13.68 %. Both algorithms can predict flooding curves for different packing geometries and chemical systems precisely.  相似文献   
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Pyrolysis experiments were performed in high vacuum and under reduced air pressure (100 Pa). The volatile products of pure cellulose and cellulose containing various amounts of flame retardant 2,2′-oxybis (5,5-dimethyl-1,3,2-dioxaphosphorinane-2,2′-disulfide), i.e., Sandoflam 5060 of Sandoz AG, were studied by means of gas chromatography in combination with mass spectroscopy. The volatile products were characterized with infrared spectroscopy. The studied revealed that the incorporation of the flame retardant enhanced the water release and shifted the onset of this reaction to lower temperature. On the basis of these findings an explanation for the mechanism of flame retardancy in generated cellulose fibers modified with this particular flame retardant is attempted. From experiments with different residual air pressure the influence of oxygen on the primary processes of the pyrolytic degradation of cellulose is being discussed.  相似文献   
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The density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) calculations were applied to investigate the interaction of a Pt6 particle with the ZSM-5 zeolite framework. The electronic structure of the metal particle is strongly affected by the interaction with basic framework oxygens and acid sites of the zeolite support. Adsorption on basic sites (Eads = 6 kcal/mol) favors the formation of the electron enriched metal cluster. Interaction of the platinum cluster with the acid site characterized by stabilization energy of 47 kcal/mol results in oxidation of the metal particle and suppression of Brønsted acidity of the support. The hypothesis is put forward that the oxidized platinum particle can function as an active site for the alkane isomerisation on platinum supported high silica zeolites.  相似文献   
5.
Pre-pruning and Post-pruning are two standard techniques for handling noise in decision tree learning. Pre-pruning deals with noise during learning, while post-pruning addresses this problem after an overfitting theory has been learned. We first review several adaptations of pre- and post-pruning techniques for separate-and-conquer rule learning algorithms and discuss some fundamental problems. The primary goal of this paper is to show how to solve these problems with two new algorithms that combine and integrate pre- and post-pruning.  相似文献   
6.
A project was initiated from hypotheses that the use of longer and different types of tendon support could lead to improved control of tunnel deformation in changing stress fields. An extensive literature study was conducted. Subsequently a tunnel was supported with various lengths and types of cable tendons. The tunnel was subjected to mining-induced stress changes. Tunnel deformations were measured using instrumentation. Results from the literature study and tunnel deformation measurements indicated within context that: (1) long tendons or other support systems cannot substitute for good tunnel layout; (2) long tendons effect a retain-and-hold function while shorter tendons strengthen and reinforce highly fractured tunnel walls; (3) larger boreholes or weakergrout reduce support system stiffness; (4) cable tendons have high shear resistance and debonding tendency; (5) long tendons are beneficial in sidewalls but not the hangingwall, (6) long tendons induce a more stable sidewall deformation distribution; (7) the updip sidewall deformed less than downdip; (8) more deformation occurred with stress decrease than with stress increase.  相似文献   
7.
Zusammenfassung Die laserspektroskopischen Me?methoden laserinduzierte Fluoreszenz und spontane Ramanspektroskopie werden eingesetzt zur Messung der Konzentrationen von Stickoxid, Hydroxyl sowie der chemischen Hauptkomponenten und der Temperatur. Betrachtet wird die thermische Umsetzung von Wasserstoff mit Luftsauerstoff. Es wird die experimentelle Vorgehensweise und Problematik dargestellt. Ebenso wird der Weg der Modellierung und Berechnung turbulenter Verbrennungsvorg?nge am konkreten Beispiel skizziert. Die Annahme chemischen Gleichgewichts stellt sich als ungenügend in der Berechnung der Stickoxid- und Hydroxylkonzentrationen heraus. Eine deutlich bessere Vorhersage wird durch Einführen einer Reaktionsfortschrittsvariablen für das chemische Modell erreicht.  相似文献   
8.
The improved performance of gain-coupled DFB lasers incorporating a titanium surface Bragg grating and a strained layer multiquantum well active region for operation at 1.55 μm is presented. Besides the essentially simplified fabrication process, the incorporation of the metallic, absorptive grating yields stable singlemode operation with a high sidemode suppression  相似文献   
9.
The question posed in the title of the paper is answered by simulating EU-integration of the Visegrád-countries by a spatial computable general equilibrium (SCGE) model. A two-sector model is calibrated for a system of almost 100 regions covering the whole area of Europe and a rest of world region. The sectors are a local sector, producing non-tradables under perfect competition, and a tradables sector, producing a large number of tradable varieties under monopolistic competition. Trade between regions is costly, with costs depending on geographic distance and national impediments to trade. The model is calibrated such that the equilibrium solution reproduces benchmark data about international trade and regional incomes. Economic integration is simulated by reducing impediments to trade between integrating countries and calculating a new counterfactual equilibrium.  相似文献   
10.
引言 电子商务是建立在信任基础上的.在现实世界中,信任是通过人际关系、签名及其他证明方式建立起来的.而在电子世界里,信任的创建必须脱离这些书面的证明方式.事实上,电子身份证可提供确凿的证据,表明客户及厂商的真实身份.  相似文献   
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