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1.
Some reports demonstrated successful genome editing in pigs by one-step zygote microinjection of mRNA of CRISPR/Cas9-related components. Given the relatively long gestation periods and the high cost of housing, the establishment of a single blastocyst-based assay for rapid optimization of the above system is required. As a proof-of-concept, we attempted to disrupt a gene (GGTA1) encoding the α-1,3-galactosyltransferase that synthesizes the α-Gal epitope using parthenogenetically activated porcine oocytes. The lack of α-Gal epitope expression can be monitored by staining with fluorescently labeled isolectin BS-I-B4 (IB4), which binds specifically to the α-Gal epitope. When oocytes were injected with guide RNA specific to GGTA1 together with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and human Cas9 mRNAs, 65% (24/37) of the developing blastocysts exhibited green fluorescence, although almost all (96%, 23/24) showed a mosaic fluorescent pattern. Staining with IB4 revealed that the green fluorescent area often had a reduced binding activity to IB4. Of the 16 samples tested, six (five fluorescent and one non-fluorescent blastocysts) had indel mutations, suggesting a correlation between EGFP expression and mutation induction. Furthermore, it is suggested that zygote microinjection of mRNAs might lead to the production of piglets with cells harboring various mutation types.  相似文献   
2.
Although hydrogen refueling stations (HRSs) are becoming widespread across Japan and are essential for the operation of fuel cell vehicles, they present potential hazards. A large number of accidents such as explosions or fires have been reported, rendering it necessary to conduct a number of qualitative and quantitative risk assessments for HRSs. Current safety codes and technical standards related to Japanese HRSs have been established based on the results of a qualitative risk assessment and quantitative effectiveness validation of safety measures over ten years ago. In the last decade, there has been much development in the technologies of the components or facilities used in domestic HRSs and much operational experience as well as knowledge to use hydrogen in HRSs safely have been gained through years of commercial operation. The purpose of the present study is to conduct a quantitative risk assessment (QRA) of the latest HRS model representing Japanese HRSs with the most current information and to identify the most significant scenarios that pose the greatest risks to the physical surroundings in the HRS model. The results of the QRA show that the risk contours of 10?3 and 10?4 per year were confined within the HRS boundaries, whereas the risk contours of 10?5 and 10?6 per year are still present outside the HRS. Comparing the breakdown of the individual risks (IRs) at the risk ranking points, we conclude that the risk of jet fire demonstrates the highest contribution to the risks at all of the risk ranking points and outside the station. To reduce these risks and confine the risk contour of 10?6 per year within the HRS boundaries, it is necessary to consider risk mitigation measures for jet fires.  相似文献   
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Recently it has been discovered that a nano-porous main group oxide 12CaO·7Al2O3 (C12A7) can be converted from a wide-gap insulator to a good transparent conductor. Using ab initio modelling we explain good conductivity of this material by very small barriers for hopping of localised electrons between neighbouring positive cages. We show that optical absorption of C12A7 in infrared region and at energies higher than 2.7 eV is due to inter-cage and intra-cage electron transitions, respectively. The proposed mechanisms can be useful in further search for conducting transparent media.  相似文献   
5.
We have investigated the characteristics of transparent metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MISFETs) fabricated using InGaO3(ZnO)m (m=integer) single-crystalline thin films as n-channel layers and amorphous alumina as gate insulator films. The MISFETs exhibit good characteristics such as insensitivity to visible light illumination, off-current as low as ∼1 nA with a positive threshold voltage of ∼3 V and on/off current ratio of 105. The field-effect mobility increased from ∼1 to ∼10 cm2 (V s)−1 as the m-value increased. Room temperature Hall mobility also increased. However, unexpectedly these values were lower than the field-effect mobility. It is explained by existence of shallow localized state in the homologous compounds.  相似文献   
6.
The recent increase in the demand for power in urban areas has caused changes in the way power is supplied. Underground distribution systems have been introduced for convenience in urban areas and to prevent injuries in case of a crisis. As a result, many new types of power cables are being used. One type, XPLE cables (also called CV cables) have been rapidly taking the place of conventional cables such as OF or SL cables since the 1960s because of their relatively easy installation and maintainability. However, distribution cables used under severe environmental conditions deteriorate rapidly (due mainly to water treeing), and some cables experience insulation breakdown. Therefore, many diagnostic methods have been developed, though they have not been very effective. By combining methods, a high reliability can be achieved in comparison to the use of a single method. However, processing the data is difficult for on-site personnel, so many experts are required. But there is a lack of qualified experts, hence we have turned to the development of expert systems.  相似文献   
7.
The radiation tolerance for prototype front-end chips designed for a silicon micro-strip detector was examined with a 60Co irradiation source to establish an allowable range of the radiation dose. The irradiated front-end chips were SMA2SH-64A, a 64-channel preamplifier array; SMA2SH-1, a single-channel preamplifier circuit with a comparator; and Control-C, a digital-control chip for the preamplifiers.  相似文献   
8.
Q-switch for pulsing laser beam and Galvano scanner for rapid scanning laser beam were adapted to manipulatemicro solid particles in a water droplet.The trapping of fine particles at micron-sized diameters by a YAG lasersystem,induced flows,and the induced motion of the particles by laser beam irradiations are discussed.Particlerotations are observed by using anisotropic micro objects,and moreover the rotational rate with clockwise direc-tion is 22 r/min.The fragments of a cover glass were mixed in a water droplet,and their size and shape are un-even.The rotation of that non-spheres without scanning by the Galvano scanner is also observed in water.  相似文献   
9.
Ti wire electrodes were immersed in acidic solutions containing H2SO4 and HCl of various concentrations at 353 K to evaluate corrosion rate by measurement of electric resistance change (resistometry). Addition of hydrochloric acid to sulphuric acid solution promoted depassivation of Ti. After depassivation, the immersion potential dropped to the hydrogen evolution potential and a hydride layer was formed on the surface. The hydride layer dissolved continuously in the acidic solution. SEM observation showed that Ti wires dissolved almost uniformly in the early stage and that the dissolution then trace became irregular due to nonuniform growth of the hydride layer. Dissolution rate of a Ti wire was estimated almost accurately by resistometry.  相似文献   
10.
When the minimum-time trajectory of a manipulator along a geometrically prescribed path is planned taking into consideration the manipulator's dynamics and actuator's torque limits, at least one of the joints should be at the torque limit. The execution of such a trajectory by a conventional feedback control scheme results in torque saturation. Consequently, the tracking error cannot be suppressed and the manipulator may deviate from the desired path. In this paper, the author's propose a feedback control method for path tracking which takes the torque saturation into account. Based on the desired path, a coordinate system called path coordinates is defined. The path coordinates are composed of the component along the path and the components normal to the path. The equation of motion is described in terms of the path coordinates. Control of the components normal to the path is given priority in order to keep the motion of the manipulator on the path. Simulations of a two-degree-of-freedom manipulator show the effectiveness of this method  相似文献   
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