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1.
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a barely treatable disease due to its profound chemoresistance. A distinct inter- and intratumoral heterogeneity reflected by specialized microenvironmental niches and different tumor cell subpopulations allows GBMs to evade therapy regimens. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop alternative treatment strategies. A promising candidate for the treatment of GBMs is AT101, the R(-) enantiomer of gossypol. The present study evaluates the effects of AT101, alone or in combination with temozolomide (TMZ), in a microenvironmental glioma stem cell niche model of two GBM cell lines (U251MG and U87MG). AT101 was found to induce strong cytotoxic effects on U251MG and U87MG stem-like cells in comparison to the respective native cells. Moreover, a higher sensitivity against treatment with AT101 was observed upon incubation of native cells with a stem-like cell-conditioned medium. This higher sensitivity was reflected by a specific inhibitory influence on the p-p42/44 signaling pathway. Further, the expression of CXCR7 and the interleukin-6 receptor was significantly regulated upon these stimulatory conditions. Since tumor stem-like cells are known to mediate the development of tumor recurrences and were observed to strongly respond to the AT101 treatment, this might represent a promising approach to prevent the development of GBM recurrences.  相似文献   
2.
Surface passivation treatment is a widely used strategy to resolve trap-mediated nonradiative recombination toward high-efficiency metal-halide perovskite photovoltaics. However, a lack of passivation with mixture treatment has been investigated, as well as an in-depth understanding of its passivation mechanism. Here, a systematic study on a mixed-salt passivation strategy of formamidinium bromide (FABr) coupled with different F-substituted alkyl lengths of ammonium iodide is demonstrated. It is obtained better device performance with decreasing chain length of the F-substituted alkyl ammonium iodide in the presence of FABr. Moreover, they unraveled a synergistic passivation mechanism of the mixed-salt treatment through surface reconstruction engineering, where FABr dominates the reformation of the perovskite surface via reacting with the excess PbI2. Meanwhile, ammonium iodide passivates the perovskite grain boundaries both on the surface and top perovskite bulk through penetration. This synergistic passivation engineer results in a high-quality perovskite surface with fewer defects and suppressed ion migration, leading to a champion efficiency of 23.5% with mixed-salt treatment. In addition, the introduction of the moisture resisted F-substituted groups presents a more hydrophobic perovskite surface, thus enabling the decorated devices with excellent long-term stability under a high humid atmosphere as well as operational conditions.  相似文献   
3.
The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has created a great demand for a better understanding of the spread of viruses in indoor environments. A novel measurement system consisting of one portable aerosol-emitting mannequin (emitter) and a number of portable aerosol-absorbing mannequins (recipients) was developed that can measure the spread of aerosols and droplets that potentially contain infectious viruses. The emission of the virus from a human is simulated by using tracer particles solved in water. The recipients inhale the aerosols and droplets and quantify the level of solved tracer particles in their artificial lungs simultaneously over time. The mobile system can be arranged in a large variety of spreading scenarios in indoor environments and allows for quantification of the infection probability due to airborne virus spreading. This study shows the accuracy of the new measurement system and its ability to compare aerosol reduction measures such as regular ventilation or the use of a room air purifier.  相似文献   
4.
The G protein-coupled receptor GPR183/EBI2, which is activated by oxysterols, is a therapeutic target for inflammatory and metabolic diseases where both antagonists and agonists are of potential interest. Using the piperazine diamide core of the known GPR183 antagonist (E)-3-(4-bromophenyl)-1-(4-(4-methoxybenzoyl)piperazin-1-yl)prop-2-en-1-one (NIBR189) as starting point, we identified and sourced 79 structurally related compounds that were commercially available. In vitro screening of this compound collection using a Ca2+ mobilization assay resulted in the identification of 10 compounds with agonist properties. To enable establishment of initial structure-activity relationship trends, these were supplemented with five in-house compounds, two of which were also shown to be GPR183 agonists. Taken together, our findings suggest that the agonist activity of this compound series is dictated by the substitution pattern of one of the two distal phenyl rings, which functions as a molecular efficacy-switch.  相似文献   
5.
Calmodulin (CaM) is an important intracellular protein that binds Ca2+ and functions as a critical second messenger involved in numerous biological activities through extensive interactions with proteins and peptides. CaM’s ability to adapt to binding targets with different structures is related to the flexible central helix separating the N- and C-terminal lobes, which allows for conformational changes between extended and collapsed forms of the protein. CaM-binding targets are most often identified using prediction algorithms that utilize sequence and structural data to predict regions of peptides and proteins that can interact with CaM. In this review, we provide an overview of different CaM-binding proteins, the motifs through which they interact with CaM, and shared properties that make them good binding partners for CaM. Additionally, we discuss the historical and current methods for predicting CaM binding, and the similarities and differences between these methods and their relative success at prediction. As new CaM-binding proteins are identified and classified, we will gain a broader understanding of the biological processes regulated through changes in Ca2+ concentration through interactions with CaM.  相似文献   
6.
7.
The glass transition temperature (Tg) is a key parameter to investigate for application in nuclear waste immobilization in borosilicate glasses. Tg for several glasses containing iodine (I) has been measured in order to determine the I effect on Tg. Two series of glass composition (ISG and NH) containing up to 2.5 mol% I and synthesized under high pressure (0.5 to 1.5 GPa) have been investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The I local environment in glasses has been determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and revealed that I is dissolved under its iodide form (I). Results show that Tg is decreased with the I addition in the glass in agreement with previous results. We also observed that this Tg decrease is a strong function of glass composition. For NH, 2.5 mol% I induces a decrease of 24°C in Tg, whereas for ISG, 1.2 mol% decreases the Tg by 64°C. We interpret this difference as the result of the I dissolution mechanism and its effect on the polymerization of the boron network. The I dissolution in ISG is accompanied by a depolymerization of the boron network, whereas it is the opposite in NH. Although ISG corresponds to a standardized glass, for the particular case of I immobilization it appears less adequate than NH considering that the decrease in Tg for NH is small in comparison to ISG.  相似文献   
8.
The price of cobalt has increased by some 450% in the past two years, mainly due to increasing demand for lithium–ion batteries. With an official 2017 production of 64 kt, the Democratic Republic of Congo produces more than half of the world’s cobalt. African Copperbelt operations have traditionally focused on copper production; however, it has now become imperative to also consider cobalt recovery from these ores. A plethora of processing routes is possible. Most hydrometallurgical flowsheets recover cobalt from the raffinate of the low-grade copper solvent-extraction circuit. Downstream purification processes include sequential precipitation with a variety of reagents, solvent extraction, and ion exchange. Product choices include hydroxide, carbonate, sulfate, and metal cathode. This study assesses technical and economic advantages and limitations of various approaches to the hydrometallurgical processing of cobalt in an African context.  相似文献   
9.
The bromodomain and extra terminal (BET) family of bromodomain-containing proteins (BCPs) have been the subject of extensive research over the past decade, resulting in a plethora of high-quality chemical probes for their tandem bromodomains. In turn, these chemical probes have helped reveal the profound biological role of the BET bromodomains and their role in disease, ultimately leading to a number of molecules in active clinical development. However, the BET subfamily represents just 8/61 of the known human bromodomains, and attention has now expanded to the biological role of the remaining 53 non-BET bromodomains. Rapid growth of this research area has been accompanied by a greater understanding of the requirements for an effective bromodomain chemical probe and has led to a number of new non-BET bromodomain chemical probes being developed. Advances since December 2015 are discussed, highlighting the strengths/caveats of each molecule, and the value they add toward validating the non-BET bromodomains as tractable therapeutic targets.  相似文献   
10.
Practitioners are continuing to develop egress modelling software for the design of the built environment. These models require data about human behaviour and factors for calibration, validation and verification. This study aims to address the specific data and knowledge gap: emergency egress of the elderly. Such data are difficult to collect given privacy and consent concerns, with strong relationships generally being required between residences and researchers. Through the observation of nine fire drills at six Canadian long-term care (LTC) and retirement homes, specific evacuation actions and behaviour were observed for 37 staff members and information about the evacuation of 56 residents was collected. These drills demonstrated that emergency egress in LTC and retirement homes is highly staff dependent with 72% of residents recorded requiring full assistance at all stages of movement in evacuation, and that the type of announced/unannounced drill and level of resident care will affect the type of data collected. The development of travel speed and pre-movement is discussed subject to limitation with qualitative behavioural insights of residents that were observed. This study provides valuable methodological discussion on how to conduct behavioural studies in similar highly restricted research environments. Specific attention is given to understanding the considerations that must be made when using fire drills as data sources, and the impact that these can have on using such data for modelling. This study may inform the initial setup and programming of evacuation models from an actions and behavioural perspectives of staff members and residents.  相似文献   
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