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1.
Pyogenic spondylodiscitis can cause severe osteolytic and destructive lesions in the spine. Elderly or immunocompromised individuals are particularly susceptible to infectious diseases; specifically, infections in the spine can impair the ability of the spine to support the trunk, causing patients to be bedridden, which can also severely affect the physical condition of patients. Although treatments for osteoporosis have been well studied, treatments for bone loss secondary to infection remain to be elucidated because they have pathological manifestations that are similar to but distinct from those of osteoporosis. Recently, we encountered a patient with severely osteolytic pyogenic spondylodiscitis who was treated with romosozumab and exhibited enhanced bone formation. Romosozumab stimulated canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling, causing robust bone formation and the inhibition of bone resorption, which exceeded the bone loss secondary to infection. Bone loss due to infections involves the suppression of osteoblastogenesis by osteoblast apoptosis, which is induced by the nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, and osteoclastogenesis with the receptor activator of the nuclear factor-κB ligand-receptor combination and subsequent activation of the nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 and c-Fos. In this study, we review and discuss the molecular mechanisms of bone loss secondary to infection and analyze the efficacy of the medications for osteoporosis, focusing on romosozumab, teriparatide, denosumab, and bisphosphonates, in treating this pathological condition.  相似文献   
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The reconstructed surface structure of the II–VI semiconductor ZnTe (110), which is a promising material in the research field of semiconductor spintronics, was studied by scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS). First, the surface states formed by reconstruction by the charge transfer of dangling bond electrons from cationic Zn to anionic Te atoms, which are similar to those of IV and III–V semiconductors, were confirmed in real space. Secondly, oscillation in tunneling current between binary states, which is considered to reflect a conformational change in the topmost Zn–Te structure between the reconstructed and bulk-like ideal structures, was directly observed by STM. Third, using the technique of charge injection, a surface atomic structure was successfully fabricated, suggesting the possibility of atomic-scale manipulation of this widely applicable surface of ZnTe.  相似文献   
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Cyclodextrins (CyDs) are water-soluble host molecules possessing a nanosized hydrophobic cavity. In the realm of molecular recognition, this cavity is used not only as a recognition site but also as a reaction medium, where a hydrophobic sensor recognizes a guest molecule. Based on the latter concept, we have designed a novel supramolecular sensing system composed of Zn(II)-dipicolylamine metal complex-based azobenzene (1-Zn) and 3A-amino-3A-deoxy-(2AS,3AS)-γ-cyclodextrin (3-NH2-γ-CyD) for sensing adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP). 1-Zn showed redshifts in the UV-Vis spectra and induced circular dichroism (ICD) only when both ATP and 3-NH2-γ-CyD were present. Calculations of equilibrium constants indicated that the amino group of 3-NH2-γ-CyD was involved in the formation of supramolecular 1-Zn/3-NH2-γ-CyD/ATP. The Job plot of the ICD spectral response revealed that the stoichiometry of 1-Zn/3-NH2-γ-CyD/ATP was 2:1:1. The pH effect was examined and 1-Zn/3-NH2-γ-CyD/ATP was most stable in the neutral condition. The NOESY spectrum suggested the localization of 1-Zn in the 3-NH2-γ-CyD cavity. Based on the obtained results, the metal coordination interaction of 1-Zn and the electrostatic interaction of 3-NH2-γ-CyD were found to take place for ATP recognition. The “reaction medium approach” enabled us to develop a supramolecular sensing system that undergoes multi-point interactions in water. This study is the first step in the design of a selective sensing system based on a good understanding of supramolecular structures.  相似文献   
5.
本文介绍了日本公路工程利用预应力混凝土预制件修建防灾构筑物的情况。防灾构筑物可分为:防雪灾和防落石、塌方两种。也可分为预防工程和防护工程构筑物,如防风雪掩道、防雪崩栅栏、防雪崩安全隧道、防雪崩栏杆、防落石、防塌方安全隧道和防落石栏杆,以及用FRP的吊栅栏、用泡沫苯乙烯的悬臂梁防落石栏杆等。  相似文献   
6.
In order to modify the continuous network of eutectic cementite normally found in low alloy white cast irons into a dispersive distribution, strategies of controlling the morphology of eutectic cementite by additives are discussed. Qualitative arguments are presented and applied to the development of a complex modifier REAINTi. With the addition of this modifier to low carbon white cast irons nearly one fifth of the original eutectic cementite network can be modified into blocky particles in the plane of polish, and one third into isolated irregular ones. The experimental data shows that Ti(CN) may act as an effective nucleant or a grain refiner for eutectic cementite. The modification effects of rare earth elements are attributed to their abilities to purify the melt, promote divorced eutectic growth and refine the microstructure. Aluminium contributes to the modification by its purification effect.  相似文献   
7.
Gas effusion spectra of fullerenes are studied. Three peaks of toluene are found in gas effusion spectra dp/dT-T. Two peaks of oxygen are found in gas effusion spectra dN/dt-T of samples kept in the air after annealing to avoid the toluene. These phenomena confirmed to be reversible are discussed by treating fullerenes as intercalated materials.  相似文献   
8.
In order to obtain the additional data concerning the unperturbed dimension of poly-4-substituted styrene, light scattering measurements are performed on the twenty-two fractions with molecular weight of (0.91–352)·104 of poly(4-acetoxystyrene) in dioxan at 25°C, from which the molecular weight obtained was found easily to be evaluated with the gel permeation chromatography using THF. Phase separation experiments for this polymer indicate that the theta state is attained in isopropyl acetate at 19.7°C and butyl acetate at 26.8°C. By making viscosity measurements at that state, the value of KΘ is directly evaluated as 5.4·10?4 dl g?1. The limiting viscosity number is also obtained in good solvents, THF and dioxan, at 25°C and constants of the Mark-Houwink-Sakurada equation in each solvent are determined. Further, approximately the same KΘ as above is obtained from these data with the Stockmayer-Fixman plot. The calculated value of steric factor, 2.37, on this polymer may be plausible, compared with those of polyvinylaromatic derivatives.  相似文献   
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To investigate the molecular basis of altered expression of the H-cadherin gene, we used polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism and DNA sequencing to examine the H-cadherin gene in 48 primary breast cancers in which loss of the long arm of chromosome 16 had been detected. We identified no mutations other than somatic 5-bp deletion within the coding region in a single tumor. The very low frequency of mutation found in these experiments suggests that H-cadherin is usually not a primary target for carcinogenesis in human breast cancers, and that reduction of its expression is likely to be a consequence of some other genetic event(s).  相似文献   
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