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1.
Polymer electrets have revealed great potential application in electromechanical devices because of the low weight, large quasi-piezoelectric sensitivity, and excellent flexibility. For an electret, a permanent and macroscopic electric field exists on the surface, principally led by a macroscopic electrostatic charge on the surface or a net orientation of polar groups inside the object. Here, progress in the development of polymer electrets is reviewed. After a brief retrospect of the research courses and those typical polymer electrets that are classified into fluorine polymer and nonfluorine polymer, we present a survey on the charging methods, including corona, soft X-ray, contact, thermal and monoenergetic particle beams. The latest representative applications (i.e., power harvesting, sensors, field effect transistors, and biomedicine) based on polymer electrets are also summarized. Finally, we complete this review with a discussion on perspectives and challenges in this field.  相似文献   
2.
Yarn-dyed fabric is often woven from warp and weft yarns in the same color depth to ensure a uniform color appearance. The difference in color depth between warp and weft tends to result in the uneven color of the yarn-dyed fabric. This article aims to establish a color tolerance for yarn-dyed fabric that can be woven with a qualified color appearance but from the warp and weft yarns in different color depths. A total of 27 yarn-dyed fabric samples in three color series (red, yellow, and blue) were evaluated by using the yarn-dyed fabric from warp and weft yarns in the same color depth of 2% (on weight of fabric, owf) as the standard. Visual assessment and instrumental measurement of color were carried out to establish the color tolerance ellipse that was defined as CMC (Color Measurement Committee) color differences (2:1) of no more than 1.00. It was found that the color strengths (K/S) and color differences (ΔECMC(2:1)) of these fabric samples for each color series had linear relationships with the color depths of warp and weft yarns. The color tolerance ellipses indicated that, even though the warp and weft yarns had an apparent color difference, they could be woven in fabrics with relatively uniform color appearance and meet the requirements for yarn-dyed fabric. This work provided valuable insight into the production of qualified yarn-dyed fabrics from unqualified dyed yarns.  相似文献   
3.
盾构隧道施工物料无人运输有助于提升运输效率、降低运输成本、减少运输安全事故率。与公路汽车无人驾驶、港口车辆无人驾驶、轨道交通无人驾驶等逐步成熟的无人驾驶技术不同,在隧道场景下实施施工物料无人运输存在运输物料种类繁多、运输调度困难、地下定位信号拒止、狭窄车道频繁会车、行车路面工况复杂、地上地下联动响应慢等诸多挑战。从实现盾构隧道施工物料无人运输的关键问题分析入手,综述当前盾构隧道施工物料运输方式、运输需求、无人运输发展现状及存在的挑战,提出盾构隧道施工物料无人运输的五大关键技术:多种类物料智能货控能效管理技术,无人化垂直装卸门机控制技术,多传感器融合同步定位与地图构建技术,隧道复杂环境路径规划与自主避障技术,隧-地一体化联动响应的高可靠性无线通信技术。  相似文献   
4.
Dielectric capacitors with decent energy storage and fast charge-discharge performances are essential in advanced pulsed power systems. In this study, novel ceramics (1-x)NaNbO3-xBi(Ni2/3Nb1/3)O3(xBNN, x = 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.20) with high energy storage capability, large power density and ultrafast discharge speed were designed and prepared. The impedance analysis proves that the introducing an appropriate amount of Bi(Ni0·5Nb0.5)O3 boosts the insulation ability, thus obtaining a high breakdown strength (Eb) of 440 kV/cm in xBNN ceramics. A high energy storage density (Wtotal) of 4.09 J/cm3, recoverable energy storage density (Wrec) of 3.31 J/cm3, and efficiency (η) of 80.9% were attained in the 0.15BNN ceramics. Furthermore, frequency and temperature stability (fluctuations of Wrec ≤ 0.4% over 5–100 Hz and Wrec ≤ 12.3% over 20–120 °C) were also observed. The 0.15BNN ceramics exhibited a large power density (19 MW/cm3) and ultrafast discharge time (~37 ns) over the range of ambient temperature to 120 °C. These enhanced performances may be attributed to the improved breakdown strength and relaxor behavior through the incorporation of BNN. In conclusion, these findings indicate that 0.15BNN ceramics may serve as promising materials for pulsed power systems.  相似文献   
5.
Ambient condition, especially the wind condition, is an important factor to determine the behavior of hydrogen diffusion during hydrogen release. However, only few studies aim at the quantitative study of the hydrogen diffusion in a wind-exist condition. And very little researches aiming at the variable wind condition have been done. In this paper, the hydrogen diffusion in different wind condition which including the constant wind velocity and the variable wind velocity is investigated numerically. When considering the variable wind velocity, the UDF (user defined function) is compiled. Characteristics of the FGC (flammable gas cloud) and the HMF (hydrogen mass fraction) are analyzed in different wind condition and comparisons are made with the no-wind condition. Results indicate that the constant wind velocity and the variable wind velocity have totally different effect for the determination of hydrogen diffusion. Comparisons between the constant wind velocity and the variable wind velocity indicate that the variable wind velocity may cause a more dangerous situation since there has a larger FGC volume. More importantly, the wind condition has a non-negligible effect when considering the HMF along the radial direction. As the wind velocity increases, the distribution of the HMF along the radial direction is not Gaussian anymore when the distance between the release hole and the observation line exceeds to a critical value. This work can be a supplement of the research on the hydrogen release and diffusion and a valuable reference for the researchers.  相似文献   
6.
7.
To investigate the effect of cooking temperature (55, 65, 75, 85 and 95 °C) on texture and flavour binding of braised sauce porcine skin (BSPS), sensory acceptance, microstructure and flavour-binding capacity were investigated during the processing of BSPS. Samples cooked at 85 and 95 °C showed better texture and aroma scores. Hardness and chewiness of BSPS were obviously improved at 85 and 95 °C than control group. Collagen structure was significantly destroyed over 85 °C. The porcine skin collagen heated at 85 and 95 °C showed relatively higher flavour-binding capacity than other samples. The improvement of texture of BSPS was mainly attributed to the degradation of collagen. Higher aroma scores of BSPS were related to intense binding abilities with aroma compounds at 85 and 95 °C. Cooking at 85 or 95 °C could be an optimal cooking temperature for BSPS.  相似文献   
8.
Large domain wall (DW) conductivity in an insulating ferroelectric plays an important role in the future nanosensors and nonvolatile memories. However, the wall current was usually too small to drive high-speed memory circuits and other agile nanodevices requiring high output-powers. Here, a large domain-wall current of 67.8 μA in a high on/off ratio of ~4460 was observed in an epitaxial Au/BiFeO3/SrRuO3 thin-film capacitor with the minimized oxygen vacancy concentration. The studies from read current-write voltage hysteresis loops and piezo-response force microscope images consistently showed remaining of partially unswitched domains after application of an opposite poling voltage that increased domain wall density and wall current greatly. A theoretical model was proposed to explain the large wall current. According to this model, the domain reversal occurs with the appearance of head-to-head and tail-to-tail 180° domain walls (DWs), resulting in the formation of highly conductive wall paths. As the applied voltage increased, the domain-wall number increased to enhance the on-state current, in agreement with the measurements of current-voltage curves. This work paves a way to modulate DW currents within epitaxial Au/BiFeO3/SrRuO3 thin-film capacitors through the optimization of both oxygen vacancy and domain wall densities to achieve large output powers of modern domain-wall nanodevices.  相似文献   
9.
Mercury, lead, and cadmium are among the most toxic and carcinogenic heavy metal ions (HMIs), posing serious threats to the sustainability of aquatic ecosystems and public health. There is an urgent need to remove these ions from water by a cheap but green process. Traditional methods have insufficient removal efficiency and reusability. Structurally robust, large surface-area adsorbents functionalized with high-selectivity affinity to HMIs are attractive filter materials. Here, an adsorbent prepared by vulcanization of polyacrylonitrile (PAN), a nitrogen-rich polymer, is reported, giving rise to PAN-S nanoparticles with cyclic π-conjugated backbone and electronic conductivity. PAN-S can be coated on ultra-robust melamine (ML) foam by simple dipping and drying. In agreement with hard/soft acid/base theory, N- and S-containing soft Lewis bases have strong binding to Hg2+, Pb2+, Cu2+, and Cd2+, with extraordinary capture efficiency and performance stability. Furthermore, the used filters, when collected and electrochemically biased in a recycling bath, can release the HMIs into the bath and electrodeposit on the counter-electrode as metallic Hg0, Pb0, Cu0, and Cd0, and the PAN-S@ML filter can then be reused at least 6 times as new. The electronically conductive PAN-S@ML filter can be fabricated cheaply and holds promise for scale-up applications.  相似文献   
10.
Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) films are attracting famous applications in antistatic coating, energy storage and conversion, printed electronics, and biomedical fields due to their conductivity, optical transparency and flexibility. However, PEDOT:PSS has poor dispersion stability during long-term storage and transport. Moreover, the dried PEDOT:PSS films are insoluble in any solvent and cannot be redispersed again. In comparison to bake drying, here, a feasible strategy to achieve mechanically redispersed PEDOT:PSS with the help of freeze-drying process was reported. The redispersed PEDOT:PSS can recover not only the initial characters such as pH, chemical composition, viscosity, and particle size under similar solid contents, but also conductivity and surface morphology of treated films. In addition, the treated film exhibits self-healing properties similar to pristine film in terms of mechanical and electrical properties. This technology enables reuse and overcomes the technical problems of PEDOT:PSS dispersion, realizing real-time processing to meet variable applications.  相似文献   
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