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1.
Asymmetric synthesis of 4'-alpha-alkylcarbovir derivatives 3 were achieved based on Sakai's asymmetric alkylation of beta-keto esters. The key carbocyclic intermediate 12 was synthesized from 6 via an eleven-step sequence. Coupling of 12 with 2-amino-6-chloropurine followed by desilylation and subsequent hydrolysis gave the target compounds 3 in moderate yields.  相似文献   
2.
Low-threshold, highly reliable 630 nm-band AlGaInP visible laser diodes have been developed by employing a low-loss optical waveguide buried in the AlInP layer. A low-threshold current of 19 mA at 25°C is obtained with a cavity length of 310 μm. This current is the lowest value for 630 nm-band AlGaInP visible laser diodes, to our knowledge. Our AlInP-buried laser diodes with a cavity length of 500 μm operated over 7000 h without significant degradation at 60°C and 5 mW  相似文献   
3.
Rabbits can be infected with human retroviruses such as human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and provide useful animal models to study retroviral diseases such as adult T-cell leukemia and HIV. Previously we have succeeded in generating monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against rabbit CD4, CD5 and CD11a antigens. To make this animal species more amenable to cellular and molecular studies, we have attempted to extend the panel of mAbs against rabbit CD antigens. Here we report on the generation of three neutralizing mAbs against interleukin-2 receptor alpha chain (IL-2R alpha) (CD25), Kei-alpha 1 (IgG2b), Kei-alpha 2 (IgG2a) and Kei-alpha 3 (IgG1). They specifically recognize the rabbit Mr 55,000 IL-2 binding protein, IL-2R alpha, and completely inhibit both high- and low-affinity IL-2 binding to F648b cells that express IL-2R alpha as well as IL-2R beta. The use of mAb Kei-alpha 1 confirmed that the rabbit IL-2R alpha is not only a low-affinity IL-2R on its own but also an essential component of high-affinity IL-2R as found in other animal species, and that rabbit activated T cells including HTLV-1-transformed cell lines express high levels of the IL-2R alpha. Together with mAbs against various rabbit CD antigens that we reported previously, these neutralizing mAbs to IL-2R alpha will be valuable for studies of human retrovirus infections, such as those induced by HTLV-1 or HIV, in rabbits.  相似文献   
4.
Abstract— Suftla is a technology that is used to transfer polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon) thin‐film‐transistor (TFT) circuits from an original glass substrate to a plastic sheet. The electronic devices in the next generation will be thin, lightweight, and will handle huge amounts of data, yet consume less energy. Suftla technology, together with high‐performance polysilicon TFTs, meets all these requirements because we have developed a variety of smart flexible electronic devices, such as thin paperback‐sized displays and microprocessors. Suftla will usher in a new era of life‐enhancing flexible microelectronics.  相似文献   
5.
A membrane, which has positively charged groups in the polymer main chain, was prepared from polyethylenimine by crosslinking and successive alkylation. Dibromoalkane was used as a crosslinking agent. The crosslinked membrane was alkylated using methyl iodide under several conditions. Elemental and ICP emission analyses were introduced to measure the rates of alkylation and quaternization. From the membrane potential measurement, the effective charge density was estimated. The highest value was about 1.0 M, which was obtained by a prolonged alkylation time. This value was larger than that of some commercial ion exchange membranes. The effective charge density, which was obtained by the last alkylation procedure, was 10 times larger than that of the former one, though the rate of quaternizing increased by less than a factor of two. This implies that the activity constant in the membrane increased when the charge density is increased. © 1993 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.  相似文献   
6.
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: To develop practical and less invasive techniques for fetal endoscopic surgery, new methods of lifting the uterine wall to allow fetal surgery without maternal laparotomy were developed and assessed. METHODS: Fetal endoscopic surgical procedures, including tracheostomy and umbilical vascular cannulation, were performed using one of the three methods to enter the uterus without maternal laparotomy in pregnant goats (n = 6; 105 to 115 days' gestation): (1) direct uterine lifting with an air-cushion device; (2) indirect uterine lifting, in which the uterine wall was fixed to the maternal abdominal wall using balloon tip ports inserted percutaneously by Seldinger's method, then the maternal abdomen was lifted mechanically; and (3) combined method, in which low pressure CO2 (5 mm Hg for initial inflation and 2 mm Hg for maintenance) was insufflated into the uterus in addition to the indirect uterine lifting cited above. RESULTS: The direct uterine lifting caused massive injury of myometrium and uterine membranes. The creation of intrauterine space and the protection of the membranes were not accomplished effectively by the indirect uterine lifting only. The combined method provided the adequate intrauterine space and excellent endoscopic visibility for completion of the endoscopic procedures with minimal uterine injury. CONCLUSION: The fetal endoscopic surgery may be accomplished simply and safely by the combined method, a novel technique of uterine lifting to allow fetal surgery without maternal laparotomy.  相似文献   
7.
The behaviour of the amorphous chain in vulcanized natural rubber (NR) and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) under extension is studied by means of the cylindrical distribution function (CDF) derived from wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). In the case of the highly stretched vulcanized NR where the orientation-induced crystallization took place, the observed WAXS intensity was separated into a crystalline peak component and a broad amorphous one from which the CDF was obtained. The CDF calculated from the broad component shows that some of the amorphous segments of the highly stretched vulcanized NR are extended as fully as the crystalline chains and that the fraction of the segments increases with increasing extension. In the case of SBR, such fully stretched segments as in the case of the vulcanized NR show higher degree of an interchain packing order than those in the vulcanized NR.  相似文献   
8.
The sorption and the permeation of iodine in water-swollen poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) membranes and the formation of PVA–iodine complexes were studied. The logarithms of the permeability and the diffusion coefficient decreased approximately linearly with the increase in polymer volume fraction. When the membrane was soaked in an aqueous I2–KI solution, it contracted and Young's modulus increased. These findings were explained in terms of the formation of extra junction points due to the PVA–iodine complexes. These changes were reversible and could be recovered by replacing the solution with water. The length of the polyiodine chain increased with the increase in the degree of hydration of the membrane. At a fixed degree of hydration, Young's modulus of an iodine-sorbed membrane was much greater than that of a membrane soaked in pure water. This finding was explained on the basis of a double-network structure. The extension of the membrane promoted the complex formation, and the complex disappeared when the tension was released. The critical strain necessary for the complex formation was independent of the degree of hydration. The length of polyiodine chain increased with strain and became constant at higher strains.  相似文献   
9.
The effect of syndiotactivity of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) both on the formation and thermal stability of the complex formed in the amorphous phase of PVA films is investigated, and then a model of the complex is presented. The amount of the complex formed in syndiotacticity-rich PVA is much larger than that formed in atactic PVA under a given iodine-soaking condition, and the former complex has a higher thermal stability in the soaking solution than the latter. The complex formed in the amorphous phase is proposed to have such a structure as that in which a linear polyiodine I5? or I5? with a 3.1 A? periodicity is enveloped by four PVA segments of syndiotactic configuration with extended conformation. In this model, these four PVA chains participating in a complex are supposed to be fixed by interchain hydrogen bonds. The observed X-ray meridional intensity curve of iodinated PVA film can be explained by a series of two I5?. © 1993 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.  相似文献   
10.
The structure and optical properties of the complex formed in the crystal phase of PVA that is caused by soaking at very high iodine concentration are investigated. In the resonance Raman spectra of lightly and heavily iodinated specimens, two Raman shifts appeared at 109 and 161 cm?1. The 109 cm?1 peak due to the I mode was much stronger than the 161 cm?1 peak in a heavily iodinated specimen, whereas the peak was comparable with the 161 cm?1 peak in a lightly iodinated specimen. The complex formed in the crystal phase is identified as the I mode complex. It has an averaged iodine–iodine distance of 3.2 Å, which is different from the 3.08 Å of the I mode complex formed in the amorphous phase. The effect of KI concentration in the soaking solution on the formation of the complex is also examined. The increased KI concentration in the soaking solutions at a fixed iodine concentration increases the amount of the complex formed in the crystal phase. The change in the hydrogen-bonding state in the crystal phase with the complex formation can be evidenced by IR and NMR. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.  相似文献   
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