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1.
Wireless Personal Communications - Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a gradual loss of kidney function over the period of time and it is irrevocable once functionality reaches the critical state....  相似文献   
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Objective

To provide a basis for the selection of suitable emulsifiers in oil-in-water emulsions used as tissue analogs for MRI experiments. Three different emulsifiers were investigated with regard to their ability to stabilize tissue-like oil-in-water emulsions. Furthermore, MR signal properties of the emulsifiers themselves and influences on relaxation times and ADC values of the aqueous phase were investigated.

Materials and methods

Polysorbate 60, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and soy lecithin were used as emulsifiers. MR characteristics of emulsifiers were assessed in aqueous solutions and their function as a stabilizer was examined in oil-in-water emulsions of varying fat content (10, 20, 30, 40, 50%). Stability and homogeneity of the oil-in-water emulsions were evaluated with a delay of 3 h and 9 h after preparation using T1 mapping and visual control. Signal properties of the emulsifiers were investigated by 1H-MRS in aqueous emulsifier solutions. Relaxometry and diffusion weighted MRI (DWI) were performed to investigate the effect of various emulsifier concentrations on relaxation times (T1 and T2) and ADC values of aqueous solutions.

Results

Emulsions stabilized by polysorbate 60 or soy lecithin were stable and homogeneous across all tested fat fractions. In contrast, emulsions with SDS showed a significantly lower stability and homogeneity. Recorded T1 maps revealed marked creaming of oil droplets in almost all of the emulsions with SDS. The spectral analysis showed several additional signals for polysorbate and SDS. However, lecithin remained invisible in 1H-MRS. Relaxometry and DWI revealed different influences of the emulsifiers on water: Polysorbate and SDS showed only minor effects on relaxation times and ADC values of aqueous solutions, whereas lecithin showed a strong decrease in both relaxation times (r1,lecithin = 0.11 wt.%−1 s−1, r2,lecithin = 0.57 wt.%−1 s−1) and ADC value (Δ(ADC)lecithin =  − 0.18 × 10–3 mm2/s⋅wt.%) with increasing concentration.

Conclusion

Lecithin is suggested as the preferred emulsifier of oil-in-water emulsions in MRI as it shows a high stabilizing ability and remains invisible in MRI experiments. In addition, lecithin is suitable as an alternative means of adjusting relaxation times and ADC values of water.

  相似文献   
4.
Objective

Neonatal brain and cardiac imaging would benefit from the increased signal-to-noise ratio levels at 7 T compared to lower field. Optimal performance might be achieved using purpose designed RF coil arrays. In this study, we introduce an 8-channel dipole array and investigate, using simulations, its RF performances for neonatal applications at 7 T.

Methods

The 8-channel dipole array was designed and evaluated for neonatal brain/cardiac configurations in terms of SAR efficiency (ratio between transmit-field and maximum specific-absorption-rate level) using adjusted dielectric properties for neonate. A birdcage coil operating in circularly polarized mode was simulated for comparison. Validation of the simulation model was performed on phantom for the coil array.

Results

The 8-channel dipole array demonstrated up to 46% higher SAR efficiency levels compared to the birdcage coil in neonatal configurations, as the specific-absorption-rate levels were alleviated. An averaged normalized root-mean-square-error of 6.7% was found between measured and simulated transmit field maps on phantom.

Conclusion

The 8-channel dipole array design integrated for neonatal brain and cardiac MR was successfully demonstrated, in simulation with coverage of the baby and increased SAR efficiency levels compared to the birdcage. We conclude that the 8Tx-dipole array promises safe operating procedures for MR imaging of neonatal brain and heart at 7 T.

  相似文献   
5.
Multimedia Tools and Applications - In this work, a new fuzzy logic-based algorithm is proposed for the enhancement of low light color images. A generalization of a fuzzy set known as an...  相似文献   
6.
Multimedia Tools and Applications - Endometriosis is a common gynecologic condition typically treated via laparoscopic surgery. Its visual versatility makes it hard to identify for non-specialized...  相似文献   
7.
Journal of Chemical Ecology - Biocontrol agents such as parasitic wasps use long-range volatiles and host-associated cues from lower trophic levels to find their hosts. However, this chemical...  相似文献   
8.
Noncentrosymmetric (NCS) tetrel pnictides have recently generated interest as nonlinear optical (NLO) materials due to their second harmonic generation (SHG) activity and large laser damage threshold (LDT). Herein nonmetal-rich silicon phosphides RuSi4P4 and IrSi3P3 are synthesized and characterized. Their crystal structures are reinvestigated using single crystal X-ray diffraction and 29Si and 31P magic angle spinning NMR. In agreement with previous report RuSi4P4 crystallizes in NCS space group P1, while IrSi3P3 is found to crystallize in NCS space group Cm, in contrast with the previously reported space group C2. A combination of DFT calculations and diffuse reflectance measurements reveals RuSi4P4 and IrSi3P3 to be wide bandgap (Eg) semiconductors, Eg = 1.9 and 1.8 eV, respectively. RuSi4P4 and IrSi3P3 outperform the current state-of-the-art infrared SHG material, AgGaS2, both in SHG activity and laser inducer damage threshold. Due to the combination of high thermal stabilities (up to 1373 K), wide bandgaps (≈2 eV), NCS crystal structures, strong SHG responses, and large LDT values, RuSi4P4 and IrSi3P3 are promising candidates for longer wavelength NLO materials.  相似文献   
9.
Recent advancements in isolation and stacking of layered van der Waals materials have created an unprecedented paradigm for demonstrating varieties of 2D quantum materials. Rationally designed van der Waals heterostructures composed of monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) and few-layer hBN show several unique optoelectronic features driven by correlations. However, entangled superradiant excitonic species in such systems have not been observed before. In this report, it is demonstrated that strong suppression of phonon population at low temperature results in a formation of a coherent excitonic-dipoles ensemble in the heterostructure, and the collective oscillation of those dipoles stimulates a robust phase synchronized ultra-narrow band superradiant emission even at extremely low pumping intensity. Such emitters are in high demand for a multitude of applications, including fundamental research on many-body correlations and other state-of-the-art technologies. This timely demonstration paves the way for further exploration of ultralow-threshold quantum-emitting devices with unmatched design freedom and spectral tunability.  相似文献   
10.
Automation and Remote Control - A linear-quadratic positional differential game of three persons is considered. Coefficient criteria are established under which there is no Nash equilibrium...  相似文献   
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