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1.
The vanadium hydrides have better hydrogen storage capacity in comparison to the other metal hydrides. Although the structure of VH2 hydride has been reported, the structural stability, electronic and optical properties of VH2 hydride are unclear. To solve these problems, we apply the first-principles method to study the structural stability, electronic and optical properties of VH2 hydrides. Similar to the metal dihydrides, four possible VH2 hydrides such as the cubic (Fm-3m), tetragonal (I4/mmm), tetragonal (P42/mnm) and orthorhombic (Pnma) are designed. The result shows that the cubic VH2 hydride is a thermodynamic and dynamical stability. In particular, the tetragonal (I4/mmm) and the orthorhombic (Pnma) VH2 hydrides are firstly predicted. It is found that these VH2 hydrides show metallic behavior. The electronic interaction of V (d-state)-H (s-state) is beneficial to improve the hydrogen storage in VH2 hydride. In addition, the formation of V–H bond can improve the structural stability of VH2 hydride. Based on the analysis of optical properties, it is found that all VH2 hydrides show the ultraviolet response. Compared to the tetragonal and orthorhombic VH2 hydrides, the cubic VH2 hydride has better storage optical properties. Therefore, we believe that the VH2 hydride is a promising hydrogen storage material.  相似文献   
2.
We report the study of conductive polyaniline (PANI) chain embedded Ti-MOF functionalized with CoS as a cocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) application. The post synthetically modified hybrid photocatalyst PANI/Ti-MOF/CoS greatly influences the redox and e? ? h+ separation process and exhibits an impressive rate of HER (~1322 μmol h?1g?1), suppressing the pristine Ti-MOF (~62 μmol h?1g?1) with apparent quantum yield (AQY) of ~3.2 and transient current response of ~46.4 μA cm?2. In this system, Ti-MOF provides the circulation of Ti3+ and Ti4+ to the reaction of photocatalytic H2 generation, where the additional PANI and CoS amended the performance of H2 production through electron enrichment and thereby improving the stability and integrity of Ti-MOF. The Electrochemical studies demonstrated increased photocurrent by interweaving Ti-MOF crystal with PANI through cation-π interaction thereby enhancing interface connection and then promoting electron transfers. The charge dynamics revealed the initial charge transfer from photoexcited PANI to encapsulated MOF framework to boost the photocatalytic performance of the system. Further, the electron movement at the Ti-MOF/CoS interface is investigated through work function and electrochemical potential of electrons (Fermi level). DFT results demonstrate the importance of CoS in improving the photocatalytic performance of hybrid Ti-MOF catalyst, which leads to superior catalytic behaviour. These results establish that the encapsulation of catalytic active sites inside MOFs with desirable energy band gaps would be an ideal choice for the production of solar fuels.  相似文献   
3.
In this work, the composition-dependent point defect types and formation energies of RE2Hf2O7 (RE = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu and Gd) as well as the oxygen diffusion behavior are systematically investigated by first-principles calculations. The possible defect reactions and dominant defect complexes under stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric conditions are revealed. It is found that O Frenkel pairs are the predominant defect in stoichiometric pyrochlore hafnates. Hf-RE cation anti-site defects, accompanied by RE vacancies and/or oxygen interstitials, are stable in the non-stoichiometric case of HfO2 excess. On the other hand, RE-Hf anti-site defects together with oxygen vacancies and/or RE interstitials are preferable in the case of RE2O3 excess. The energy barriers for the migration along the VO48f - VO48f pathway of pyrochlore hafnates were calculated to be between 0.81 eV and 0.89 eV. Based on these results, a defect engineering strategy is proposed and the pyrochlore hafnates investigated here are predicted to exhibit potential oxygen ionic conductivity.  相似文献   
4.
Lithium (Li) metal, as an appealing candidate for the next-generation of high-energy-density batteries, is plagued by its safety issue mainly caused by uncontrolled dendrite growth and infinite volume expansion. Developing new materials that can improve the performance of Li-metal anode is one of the urgent tasks. Herein, a new MXene derivative containing pure rutile TiO2 and N-doped carbon prepared by heat-treating MXene under a mixing gas, exhibiting high chemical activity in molten Li, is reported. The lithiation MXene derivative with a hybrid of LiTiO2-Li3N-C and Li offers outstanding electrochemical properties. The symmetrical cell assembling lithiation MXene derivative hybrid anode exhibits an ultra-long cycle lifespan of 2000 h with an overpotential of ≈30 mV at 1 mA cm−2, which overwhelms Li-based anodes reported so far. Additionally, long-term operations of 34, 350, and 500 h at 10 mA cm−2 can be achieved in symmetrical cells at temperatures of −10, 25, and 50 °C, respectively. Both experimental tests and density functional theory calculations confirm that the LiTiO2-Li3N-C skeleton serves as a promising host for Li infusion by alleviating volume variation. Simultaneously, the superlithiophilic interphase of Li3N guides Li deposition along the LiTiO2-Li3N-C skeleton to avoid dendrite growth.  相似文献   
5.
The total energies of Laves phases in the Cr–Nb and Zr–Cr systems have been calculated by the pseudo-potential VASP code with a full relaxation of all structural parameters. The special quasirandom structures (SQSs) have been constructed and their total energies have been calculated by the VASP code to predict the enthalpies of mixing for bcc and hcp solid solution phases. The phonon calculations for the C14 and C15 Laves phases have been performed to analyze the phase stability at elevated temperatures. The experimental study on the Zr–Cr system has been carried out at different temperatures to determine the phase boundaries. Based on these results, thermodynamic models of Cr–Nb and Zr–Cr with extension to the ternary Zr–Nb–Cr systems have been developed in this work by using the CALPHAD approach.  相似文献   
6.
Energy bands, effective mass of carriers, absolute band edge positions and optical properties of tetragonal AgInS2 were calculated using a first-principles approach with the exchange correlation described by B3LYP hybrid functional. The results indicate that tetragonal AgInS2 has a direct band gap of 1.93 eV, which reproduce well experimental value. Calculated effective masses of electrons and holes are both small which are beneficial to separation and migration of electron and hole pairs. This implies that AgInS2 has good photocatalytic performance. The calculated optical characteristics indicate that AgInS2 has a slight anisotropy for both the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric function and exhibits large optical absorption in the visible light region. Furthermore, the calculated band edge positions in (100), (010) and (001) surfaces indicate that tetragonal AgInS2 is beneficial to the reduction and oxidation of water to hydrogen and oxygen under visible light irradiation.  相似文献   
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9.
The site preferences of co-alloying elements (Mo–Ta, Mo–Re, Mo–Cr) in Ni3Al are studied using first-principles calculations, and the effects of these alloying elements on the elastic properties of Ni3Al are evaluated by elastic property calculations. The results show that the Mo–Ta, Mo–Re and Mo–Cr atom pairs all prefer Al–Al sites and the spatial neighbor relation of substitution sites almost has no influence on the site preference results. Furthermore, the Young's modulus of Ni3Al increases much higher by substituting Al–Al sites with co-alloying atoms, among which Mo–Re has the best strengthening effect. The enhanced chemical bondings between alloying atoms and their neighbor host atoms are considered to be the main strengthening mechanism of the alloying elements in Ni3Al.  相似文献   
10.
The electrochemical water splitting to produce H2 in high efficiency with earth-abundant-metal catalysts remains a challenge. Here, we describe a simple “cyclic voltammetry + ageing” protocol at room temperature to activate Ni electrode (AC-Ni/NF) for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), by which Ni/Ni(OH)2 heterostructure is formed at the surface. In situ Raman spectroscopy reveals the gradual growth of Ni/Ni(OH)2 heterostructure during the first 30 min of the aging treatment and combined with polarization measurements, it suggests a positive relation between the Ni/Ni(OH)2 amount and HER performance of the electrode. The obtained AC-Ni/NF catalyst, with plentiful Ni–Ni(OH)2 interfaces, exhibits remarkable performance towards HER, with the low overpotential of only 30 mV at a H2-evolving current density of 10 mA/cm2 and 153 mV at 100 mA/cm2, as well as a small Tafel slope of 46.8 mV/dec in 1 M KOH electrolyte at ambient temperature. The excellent HER performance of the AC-Ni/NF could be maintained for at least 24 h without obvious decay. Ex situ experiments and in situ electrochemical-Raman spectroscopy along with density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal that Ni/Ni(OH)2 heterostructure, although partially reduced, can still persist during HER catalysis and it is the Ni–Ni(OH)2 interface reducing the energy barrier of H1 adsorption thus promoting the HER performance.  相似文献   
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