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Polymer electrets have revealed great potential application in electromechanical devices because of the low weight, large quasi-piezoelectric sensitivity, and excellent flexibility. For an electret, a permanent and macroscopic electric field exists on the surface, principally led by a macroscopic electrostatic charge on the surface or a net orientation of polar groups inside the object. Here, progress in the development of polymer electrets is reviewed. After a brief retrospect of the research courses and those typical polymer electrets that are classified into fluorine polymer and nonfluorine polymer, we present a survey on the charging methods, including corona, soft X-ray, contact, thermal and monoenergetic particle beams. The latest representative applications (i.e., power harvesting, sensors, field effect transistors, and biomedicine) based on polymer electrets are also summarized. Finally, we complete this review with a discussion on perspectives and challenges in this field.  相似文献   
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A digital light processing (DLP) technology has been developed for 3D printing lead-free barium titanate (BTO) piezoelectric ceramics. By comparing the curing and rheological properties of slurries with different photosensitive monomer, a high refractive index monomer acryloyl morpholine (ACMO) was chosen, and a design and preparation method of BTO slurry with high solid content, low viscosity and high curing ability was proposed. By further selecting the printing parameters, the single-layer exposure time was reduced and the forming efficiency has been greatly improved. Sintered specimens were obtained after a nitrogen-air double-step debinding and furnace sintering process, and the BTO ceramics fabricated with 80 wt% slurry shows the highest relative density (95.32 %) and piezoelectric constant (168.1 pC/N). Furthermore, complex-structured BTO ceramics were prepared, impregnated by epoxy resin and finally assembly made into hydrophones, which has significance for the future design and manufacture of piezoelectric ceramic-based composites that used in functional devices.  相似文献   
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This study investigates the behavior of fruit and vegetable samples during drying. The experimental data are fitted to several different thin-layer drying models. Regression analysis is used to determine model parameters, while statistical indicators serve to evaluate the goodness of fit. The power function model gives the best fit for all examined samples. Based on this model, different drying and heat storage technologies can be combined to ensure that the required residual moisture content of an agricultural product is reached. It is demonstrated on the case of a specific Togolese processing plant that under favorable conditions, fossil fuel consumption can be decreased by 33 %.  相似文献   
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This work aimed to examine the performance of the hybrid sintering of clay ceramic in a microwave furnace, compared to the sintering process in a conventional furnace. The raw materials were subjected to X-ray fluorescence, loss on ignition (LOI), X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution, real specific mass, and thermogravimetric analyses. The red clay ceramic mass was prepared, extruded, pre-sintered in a conventional furnace at 600°C/60 min, and sintered at temperatures between 700 °C and 1100 °C. The sintering conventional (resistive oven) was carried out for 60 min with a heating rate of 10°C/min. In the microwave furnace, the sintering times were 5, 10, and 15 min, with a heating rate of 50°C/min, with a sintering chamber coated with silicon carbide (susceptor). The sintered specimens were characterized according to linear shrinkage, water absorption, apparent porosity, apparent specific mass, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy analysis, spectroscopy analysis in the ultraviolet and visible regions, microhardness, and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that microwave sintering promoted an increase in the microhardness and apparent specific mass, and reduction in water absorption and apparent porosity values, due to greater densification in the microstructure. The best results occurred for specimens sintered at 1100°C.  相似文献   
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Production and world consumption of spices are constantly increasing. Although the antimicrobial properties of some spices are well documented, their use in the agri-food industry is also responsible for microbial contamination and spoilage. Bacterial spores introduced by spices can withstand different preparation processes, particularly thermal treatments, leading to food alterations during storage. This review brings together data from the literature about the prevalence and concentrations of spore-forming bacteria in all commercially available spices. The sporeformers found in spices belong mainly to the genera Bacillus and Clostridium. Such contaminations are very common and sometimes reach high levels, as in pepper and turmeric. Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus cereus are the most frequently detected species. Studying the harvesting, processing, and storage procedures for spices provides elements to explain why high prevalence and concentrations are observed. Spices are mostly produced in developing countries on small farms using traditional production methods. Spices become contaminated by bacterial spores in two main ways: by contact with soil during harvesting or drying, as for pepper, or by cross-contamination during the water-cooking step, as for turmeric. From these observations, we propose some recommendations. Different methods that can be used to eliminate bacterial spores from spices are presented indicating their efficiency and the limitations of their use.  相似文献   
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Brown algae are becoming increasingly popular as a food source and dietary supplement in Europe and other Western countries. As they are highly rich in iodine, they represent a potential new dietary iodine source. Iodine deficiency has been re-emerging in Europe, and it is important to ensure adequate intake through one's diet. However, macroalgae, and especially brown algae, may contain very high amounts of iodine, and both iodine deficiency and excessive iodine may increase the risk of negative health effects. The iodine content of algae or foods containing algae is currently not regulated in the European Union. The aim of this paper is to review the literature to determine the chemical species of iodine in brown algae, the loss of iodine during processing, and the bioavailability and bioaccessibility of iodine. A systematic search of the literature was performed in April 2021, via the databases Web of Science and PubMed. The review includes studies of iodine in brown macroalgae in relation to bioavailability, bioaccessibility, processing and speciation. A meta-analysis was conducted in relation to the following topics: (i) the correlation between total iodine and iodide (I) content in brown algae; (ii) the correlation between the loss of iodine during processing and the I content; and (iii) the correlation between bioavailability and the I content. The bioavailability of iodine from brown algae was generally high, with in vivo bioavailability ranging from 31% to 90%. The in vitro bioavailability of iodine (2%–28%) was systematically lower than in vivo bioavailability (31%–90%), indicating an inadequate in vitro methodology. Processing may reduce the iodine content of brown algae, and a higher I content was positively correlated with increased iodine loss during processing. Although processing strategies may reduce the iodine content of brown algae significantly, the iodine content may still be high after processing. These findings may be used in food safety evaluations of brown algae as well as in the development of macroalgae-containing foods with iodine contents suitable for human consumption. Further research on processing techniques to reduce the iodine content in brown macroalgae are warranted.  相似文献   
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近年来,国家对制造业的数字化、网络化、智能化越来越重视,特别是《中国制造2025》的发布,更是促进整个制造业向智能制造迈进,铸造行业也应该紧跟步伐。在传统压力铸造行业中压铸机的加料、取件,切边机的上件、下件,加工机床的上件、下件,都是依靠人来完成,大大制约了行业的发展。本文阐述了压力铸造的全自动化生产,为压力铸造行业的转型升级提供借鉴。  相似文献   
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To enhance chemical stability and suppress of aggregation of magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs), which are used as a support for thermoresponsive copolymer immobilization, silica coating of the MNPs is applied via the electrooxidation method. Although the resulting silica coated-MNPs also formed aggregates, the size distribution of the aggregate shifted to smaller size range. Because of that, the surface area available for copolymer immobilization increased approximately 6.7 times at maximum as compared with that of the uncoated MNPs. It contributed to the increase of the amount of the immobilized copolymer on the silica-coated MNPs, which is approximately four times larger than that on the uncoated MNPs. Fe3O4 dissolution test confirmed enhancement of chemical stability of MNPs. The thermoresponsive copolymer immobilized on the silica-coated MNPs shows the ability to recycle Cu(II) ion from Cu(II) containing solution by changing temperature with significantly shorter time than those in other thermoresponsive adsorbents in gel form.  相似文献   
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