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1.
In this study, the separation of hydrogen from gas mixtures using a palladium membrane coupled with a vacuum environment on the permeate side was studied experimentally. The gas mixtures composed of H2, N2, and CO2 were used as the feed. Hydrogen permeation fluxes were measured with membrane operating temperature in the range of 320–380 °C, pressures on the retentate side in the range of 2–5 atm, and vacuum pressures on the permeate side in the range of 15–51 kPa. The Taguchi method was used to design the operating conditions for the experiments based on an orthogonal array. Using the measured H2 permeation fluxes from the Taguchi approach, the stepwise regression analysis was also employed for establishing the prediction models of H2 permeation flux, followed by the analysis of variance (ANOVA) to identify the significance and suitability of operating conditions. Based on both the Taguchi approach and ANOVA, the H2 permeation flux was mostly affected by the gas mixture composition, followed by the retentate side pressure, the vacuum degree, and the membrane temperature. The predicted optimal operating conditions were the gas mixture with 75% H2 and 25% N2, the membrane temperature of 320 °C, the retentate side pressure of 5 atm, and the vacuum degree of 51 kPa. Under these conditions, the H2 permeation flux was 0.185 mol s?1 m?2. A second-order normalized regression model with a relative error of less than 7% was obtained based on the measured H2 permeation flux.  相似文献   
2.
《Ceramics International》2022,48(17):24383-24392
We propose a novel approach for manufacturing dual-scale porosity alumina structures by UV curing-assisted 3D plotting of a specially formulated alumina feedstock using a thermo-regulated phase separable, photocurable camphene/triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) vehicle. In particular, 3D plotting process was conducted at - 5 °C, and thus an alumina suspension prepared using liquid camphene/TEGDMA at room temperature could undergo phase separation, resulting in camphene crystals surrounded by walls comprised of liquid photopolymer enclosing alumina particles. To enhance the shape retention ability of extruded filaments, polystyrene (PS) polymer was used as the tackifier. The phase-separated feedrod could be extruded favorably through a nozzle and rapidly photopolymerized by UV light during the 3D plotting process. Three-dimensionally interconnected macropores were tightly constructed, which were separated by microporous alumina filaments, where micropores were created by the removal of camphene crystals via freeze-dying. The macroporosity of porous alumina ceramics was controlled by adjusting the distance between deposited filaments, while their microporosity was kept constant, leading to tightly tailored overall porosity and mechanical properties.  相似文献   
3.
ABSTRACT

Absorbed-dose estimation is essential for evaluation of the radiation tolerance of minor-actinide-separation processes. We propose a dose-evaluation method based on radiation permeability, with comparisons of heterogeneous structures seen in the solvent-extraction process, such as emulsions forming in the mixture of the organic and aqueous phases. A demonstration of radiation-energy-transfer simulation is performed with a focus on the minor-actinide-recovery process from high-level liquid waste with the aid of the Monte Carlo radiation-transport code PHITS. The simulation results indicate that the dose absorbed by the extraction solvent from alpha radiation depends upon the emulsion structure, and that from beta and gamma radiation depends upon the mixer-settler-apparatus size. Non-negligible contributions of well-permeable gamma rays were indicated in terms of the plant operation of the minor-actinide-separation process.  相似文献   
4.
With a growing interest in hydrogen as energy carrier, the efficient purification of hydrogen from gaseous mixtures is very important. This paper addresses the separation of hydrogen using Carbon Molecular Sieves Membranes (CMSM), which show an attractive combination of high permeability, selectivity and stability. Supported CMSM containing various amounts of aluminium have been prepared from novolac and aluminium acetyl acetonate (Al(acac)3) as carbon and alumina precursors. The thickness of the CMSM layers depend on the content of Al(acac)3 in the dipping solution, which also has influence in the pore size and pore size distribution of the membranes. The permeation properties of the membranes against the Al content in the membrane follows a volcano shape, where the membrane containing 4 wt (%) of Al(acac)3 has the best properties and was stable during 720 h for hydrogen at 150 °C and 6 bar pressure difference. All the CMSM have permeation properties well above the Robeson Upper limit.  相似文献   
5.
《Ceramics International》2021,47(18):25883-25894
Oily wastewater treatment is a global challenge due to the substantial amount of effluent resulted from many industrial and domestic activities. To overcome the challenge of using existing treatment approach and fouling, superoleophobic coatings were fabricated. In this study, a superoleophobic membrane surface was obtained using the sol-gel technique with perfluorooctanoate (PFO), poly (diallyl dimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC), and nanoparticles as complex-polymer nanocomposites. The effects of coating cycles on the surface structure, chemical properties, surface chemistry, and oleophobicity of the surface were examined using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and oil contact angle measurement. The results showed that the coated layer successfully adhered to the substrate surface. However, the chemical stability with respect to oil contact angle (OCA) revealed a decline at pH 7 and pH 9 and maintained stability at pH 3. Besides, oil flux at 63.0 L/m2. h was achieved for PDADMAC-Al2O3/44 wt% PFO and the highest separation efficiency of 98% was obtained. Furthermore, the oil rejection decreases as the oil concentration increases from 1 to 3 g/L. OCA of 155° was obtained after 5 coating cycles. Apart from mitigating substrate fouling, the superoleophobic and superhydrophilic coating can be applied to a ceramic-based hollow fibre membrane and efficiently used for the separation of oil from oily wastewater.  相似文献   
6.
A new reverse build-up method is developed to fabricate an economical H2-permeable composite membrane. Sputtering and electroplating are used for the formation of a membrane comprised of a 3.7-μm-thick Pd60Cu40 (wt.%) alloy layer and a 13-μm-thick porous Ni support layer, respectively. The H2-permeation measurements are performed under the flow of a gaseous mixture of H2 and He at 300–320 °C and 50–100 kPa of H2 partial pressure. The H2/He selectivity values exceed 300. The activation energy at 300–320 °C is 10.9 kJ mol−1. The H2 permeability of the membrane is 1.25 × 10−8 mol m−1 s−1 Pa−0.5 at 320 °C after 448 h. The estimated Pd cost of the proposed membrane is approximately 1/8 of the cost for a pure Pd60Cu40 membrane. This study demonstrates that the proposed method allows the facile production of low-cost, Pd-based membranes for H2 separation.  相似文献   
7.
A novel CdS/CaFe2O4 (CS/CFO) heterogeneous p-n junction was created by thermal deposition of CaFe2O4 nanoparticles on CdS rods. The CS/CFO hetero-structured photocatalysts exhibited increasingly efficient visible light harvesting compared to the bare CdS. The CS/CFO composites also presented higher photocurrent and slower decay of photoluminescence, suggesting a better separation of the photo-generated electrons and holes. The photocatalytic H2 evolution quantity on the optimized CS/CFO composite from water in the presence of ethanol was up to 2200 μmol after 3-h visible light illumination, which is more than twice that of the pristine CdS. The chemical interaction between CdS and CaFe2O4 was confirmed by the shifts in the XPS peaks, which made it possible for the charge carriers to transfer across the p-n junction interface. This research highlights the importance of forming an interfacial p-n heterojunction between two semiconductors for efficient charge separation and improved photocatalytic performance.  相似文献   
8.
Nowadays, oil pollution has become more serious, which causes great threats both to the ecological environment and human life. In this study, a novel type of multifunctional deacetylated cellulose acetate/polyurethane (d-MCA:MTPU) composite nanofiber membranes for oil/water separation are successfully fabricated by electrospinning, which show super-amphiphilicity in air, super-hydrophilicity in oil, and oleophobicity in water. All the d-MCA:MTPU composite nanofiber membranes with different mass ratios can be used as water-removing, oil-removing, and emulsion separation substance only by gravity driving force. The highest separation flux for water and oil reaches up to 37 000 and 74 000 L m−2 h−1, respectively, and all the separation efficiencies are more than 99%. They have outstanding comprehensive mechanics performance, which can be controlled by simply adjusting the mass ratios. They show excellent antifouling and self-cleaning ability, endowing powerful cyclic stability and reusability. Those results show that d-MCA:MTPU composite nanofiber membranes have great application prospects in oil/water separation.  相似文献   
9.
To enhance chemical stability and suppress of aggregation of magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs), which are used as a support for thermoresponsive copolymer immobilization, silica coating of the MNPs is applied via the electrooxidation method. Although the resulting silica coated-MNPs also formed aggregates, the size distribution of the aggregate shifted to smaller size range. Because of that, the surface area available for copolymer immobilization increased approximately 6.7 times at maximum as compared with that of the uncoated MNPs. It contributed to the increase of the amount of the immobilized copolymer on the silica-coated MNPs, which is approximately four times larger than that on the uncoated MNPs. Fe3O4 dissolution test confirmed enhancement of chemical stability of MNPs. The thermoresponsive copolymer immobilized on the silica-coated MNPs shows the ability to recycle Cu(II) ion from Cu(II) containing solution by changing temperature with significantly shorter time than those in other thermoresponsive adsorbents in gel form.  相似文献   
10.
《Ceramics International》2021,47(23):32882-32890
Transition metals doping has been proved to be a feasible way for tuning the physical properties on the surface and bulk of nanomaterials and also for the good performance in decontamination of emerging pollutants. In this context, doped samples of zinc tin oxide or zinc stannate nanoparticles (ZTO NPs) by several transition metals were synthesized in order to enhance the optical absorbance with the aims of reducing the band gap and therefore ameliorated their photocatalytic activity. They were characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence. The XRD patterns and the microscopic observations showed the formation of spherical nanoparticles with an average size of about 30 nm and highly pure ZTO phase with an inverse spinel structure. The Raman spectra were dominated by bands relatives to the F2g (2) and A1g symmetries modes of inverse spinel structure. The band gap Eg is estimated to be 3.75 eV for the undoped sample, and 3.67, 3.64, 3.78 and 3.21 eV, for 2% Fe, 2% Mg, 2% Gd, and 2% Mn doped ZTO samples, respectively.Furthermore, the undoped ZTO NPs have the intrinsic problem of recombination of photogenerated charge carriers. We have shown that the reduction of the band gap and oxygen vacancies resulting from the doping effect could be a useful tool for trapping and avoid the recombination of electrons coming from photosensitized rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation. Owing to the structural advantages and low band gap, 2% Mn doped ZTO NPs, with the kinetic rate constants k of 0.024 min−1, show enhanced performance for the elimination of RhB in aqueous solution compared to undoped and other doped ZTO NPs.  相似文献   
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