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ABSTRACT

Nine sowing densities of linseed were compared in a two-year experiment. Self-regulation of the density of a linseed stand resulted in a differentiated branching of the plants. The number of capsules on a linseed shoot, as well as seeds in the capsule, and the number of seeds from the shoot were highly varied from year to year, and there is even a stronger differentiation in the weight of 1000 seeds. Linear relationships were noted between the mass of seeds from the linseed plant and the number of capsules. The yield of linseed was affected by both factors. An increasing sowing rate reduced the seed yield from the shoot and the plant. At lower seeding rates, the lateral shoots contributed in the seeds yield of the plant to a higher degree compared to the main ones.  相似文献   
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The contamination of honey with hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) is a well-known hazard for food safety. While management strategies and controls of the honey industry aim to reduce the PA levels, uncertainties remain with regard to the safety of regionally produced and marketed honey. In addition, a previous study showed large differences of results obtained after various periods of storage and apparent differences between the analytical results of different laboratories. Therefore, this study aimed at examining these uncertainties by monitoring the impact of storage on the PA and PA N-oxide (PANO) content of two freshly harvested honeys and on possible demixing effects caused by pollen settling. Additionally, three analytical approaches – target analysis with matrix-matched calibration or standard addition and a sum parameter method – were applied for a comparative analysis of 20 honeys harvested in summer 2016. All samples originated from Schleswig-Holstein in Northern Germany where the PA plant Jacobaea vulgaris is currently observed on a massive scale. The results of the time series analyses showed that PANO levels markedly decreased within a few weeks and practically reached the LOD 16 weeks after harvest. Tertiary PAs, by contrast, remained stable and did not increase as a consequence of PANO decrease. The experiments on a putative demixing, which may result in a heterogeneous distribution of PAs/PANOs, revealed that there was no such effect during storage of up to 12 weeks. A comparison of the PA/PANO levels obtained by different analytical approaches showed that in some cases the sum parameter method yielded much higher levels than the target approaches, whereas in other cases, the target analysis with standard addition found higher levels than the other two methods. In summary, the results of this study highlight uncertainties regarding the validity and comparability of analytical results and consequently regarding health risk assessment.  相似文献   
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Ergonomic interventions may potentially reduce MSDs, but the context of industries (barriers, ever-changing situations, dialogue processes) might play a significant role in the success of interventions. This study evaluates the effectiveness of ergonomic interventions including engineering/technical and organizational interventions, and the involvement of the stakeholders in reducing musculoskeletal risk factors/symptoms. A pre-post-test experimental study in non-randomized groups was performed over three years in a sector of a truck assembly plant. The mean age of the operators in the sector for the initial and second assessment time was 42.0 (±7.6) years and 39.0 (±8.7), respectively. The mean length of work experience in the current job was 15.2 (±7.2) years and 13.9 (±7.3) for the initial and second assessment times, respectively. Five engineering ergonomic solutions and organizational interventions were implemented after a comprehensive ergonomic analysis. The organizational interventions consisted mostly of transferring and redistributing the tasks, i.e., ergonomically balancing and redesigning of the workstations. Before performing the interventions, the findings of the ergonomic study were presented at several meetings to encourage the involvement of the stakeholders (including managers, engineers, and operators) in the interventions. This study showed that a combination of ergonomic measures—engineering and organizational interventions—could reduce physical workloads. Musculoskeletal symptoms decreased after interventions although the difference was not significant.  相似文献   
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植物肉的出现为动物肉类食品供应短缺和养殖业环境污染问题带来希望。食品加工技术的快速发展弥补了植物基肉制品外观和口感的不足, 但其营养价值和安全性也应引起重视。本文综述了以植物蛋白为主要原料所制肉类替代品的营养价值, 包括植物肉中碳水化合物、蛋白质、脂肪、水分、维生素和矿物质的相对含量和营养性质。分析了植物肉在生产及食用过程中可能出现的物理、化学、生物因素在内的安全问题, 并探讨目前植物肉发展所存在的局限性与挑战, 以期为我国植物蛋白肉制品的研发与推广提供理论参考。  相似文献   
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道教洞天福地作为中国名山风景的经典类型之一,在宗教山岳景观中占据独特地位。浙东天台山水神秀,历代高道以入山隐修为主要目的,形成了道教在区域山林的景观文化基础。从天台山“神仙之乡”的文化背景出发,从“想象与实践”的视角切入,梳理了天台山洞天福地的景观流变:分析其“不死之福庭”地域性景观的形成经历了“赤城→桐柏”的信仰转移过程;以天台山为坐标,洞天福地格局打破了区域“层级”分布特征,而呈现大范围“州郡”空间格局。作为“联结点”的天台山,洞天世界沟通了宇宙、山、人3个基本场域,由此衍生出“洞宫”式和“周回”式山岳空间营建典范。旨在挖掘洞天福地中典型案例的价值,为中国洞天福地体系的构建提供理论依据。  相似文献   
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Increasing use of iron oxide nanoparticles in medicine and environmental remediation has led to concerns regarding exposure of these nanoparticles to the public. However, limited studies are available to evaluate their effects on the environment, in particular on plants and food crops. Here, we investigated the effects of positive (PC) and negative (NC) charged iron oxide (Fe2O3) nanoparticles (IONPs) on the physiology and reproductive capacity of Arabidopsis thaliana at concentrations of 3 and 25 mg/L. The 3 mg/L treated plants did not show evident effects on seeding and root length. However, the 25 mg/L treatment resulted in reduced seedling (positive-20% and negative-3.6%) and root (positive-48% and negative-negligible) length. Interestingly, treatment with polyethylenimine (PEI; IONP-PC coating) also resulted in reduced root length (39%) but no change was observed with polyacrylic acid (PAA; IONP-NC coating) treatment alone. However, treatment with IONPs at 3 mg/L did lead to an almost 5% increase in aborted pollen, a 2%–6% reduction in pollen viability and up to an 11% reduction in seed yield depending on the number of treatments. Interestingly, the treated plants did not show any observable phenotypic changes in overall size or general plant structure, indicating that environmental nanoparticle contamination could go dangerously unnoticed.  相似文献   
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Phytoalexins are inducible secondary metabolites possessing antimicrobial activity against phytopathogens. Rice produces a wide array of phytoalexins in response to pathogen attacks and environmental stresses. With few exceptions, most phytoalexins identified in rice are diterpenoid compounds. Until very recently, flavonoid sakuranetin was the only known phenolic phytoalexin in rice. However, recent studies have shown that phenylamides are involved in defense against pathogen attacks in rice. Phenylamides are amine-conjugated phenolic acids that are induced by pathogen infections and abiotic stresses including ultra violet (UV) radiation in rice. Stress-induced phenylamides, such as N-trans-cinnamoyltryptamine, N-p-coumaroylserotonin and N-cinnamoyltyramine, have been reported to possess antimicrobial activities against rice bacterial and fungal pathogens, an indication of their direct inhibitory roles against invading pathogens. This finding suggests that phenylamides act as phytoalexins in rice and belong to phenolic phytoalexins along with sakuranetin. Phenylamides also have been implicated in cell wall reinforcement for disease resistance and allelopathy of rice. Synthesis of phenolic phytoalexins is stimulated by phytopathogen attacks and abiotic challenges including UV radiation. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that biosynthetic pathways including the shikimate, phenylpropanoid and arylmonoamine pathways are coordinately activated for phenolic phytoalexin synthesis, and related genes are induced by biotic and abiotic stresses in rice.  相似文献   
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中国的菊花主题花展(菊花展览)是最重要的赏菊形式,对我国3种主要类型的菊花展览,即综合性菊花展览(中国菊花展览会、国际博览会菊花专项展和各级城市菊花展)、菊花专类园和菊花花田花海的发展现状进行了研究,并分析了菊花展览在促进菊花产业发展、弘扬菊花文化、服务生态文明及美丽乡村建设、加强菊花非物质文化遗产保护中的重要作用,为推动我国菊花展览水平的提高提供借鉴。  相似文献   
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