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1.
Garzan oil field is located at the south east of Turkey. It is a mature oil field and the reservoir is fractured carbonate reservoir. After producing about 1% original oil in place (OOIP) reservoir pressure started to decline. Waterflooding was started in order to support reservoir pressure and also to enhance oil production in 1960. Waterflooding improved the oil recovery but after years of flooding water breakthrough at the production wells was observed. This increased the water/oil ratio at the production wells. In order to enhance oil recovery again different techniques were investigated. Chemical enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods are gaining attention all over the world for oil recovery. Surfactant injection is an effective way for interfacial tension (IFT) reduction and wettability reversal. In this study, 31 different types of chemicals were studied to specify the effects on oil production. This paper presents solubility of surfactants in brine, IFT and contact angle measurements, imbibition tests, and lastly core flooding experiments. Most of the chemicals were incompatible with Garzan formation water, which has high divalent ion concentration. In this case, the usage of 2-propanol as co-surfactant yielded successful results for stability of the selected chemical solutions. The results of the wettability test indicated that both tested cationic and anionic surfactants altered the wettability of the carbonate rock from oil-wet to intermediate-wet. The maximum oil recovery by imbibition test was reached when core was exposed 1-ethly ionic liquid after imbibition in formation water. Also, after core flooding test, it is concluded that considerable amount of oil can be recovered from Garzan reservoir by waterflooding alone if adverse effects of natural fractures could be eliminated.  相似文献   
2.
Mercury, lead, and cadmium are among the most toxic and carcinogenic heavy metal ions (HMIs), posing serious threats to the sustainability of aquatic ecosystems and public health. There is an urgent need to remove these ions from water by a cheap but green process. Traditional methods have insufficient removal efficiency and reusability. Structurally robust, large surface-area adsorbents functionalized with high-selectivity affinity to HMIs are attractive filter materials. Here, an adsorbent prepared by vulcanization of polyacrylonitrile (PAN), a nitrogen-rich polymer, is reported, giving rise to PAN-S nanoparticles with cyclic π-conjugated backbone and electronic conductivity. PAN-S can be coated on ultra-robust melamine (ML) foam by simple dipping and drying. In agreement with hard/soft acid/base theory, N- and S-containing soft Lewis bases have strong binding to Hg2+, Pb2+, Cu2+, and Cd2+, with extraordinary capture efficiency and performance stability. Furthermore, the used filters, when collected and electrochemically biased in a recycling bath, can release the HMIs into the bath and electrodeposit on the counter-electrode as metallic Hg0, Pb0, Cu0, and Cd0, and the PAN-S@ML filter can then be reused at least 6 times as new. The electronically conductive PAN-S@ML filter can be fabricated cheaply and holds promise for scale-up applications.  相似文献   
3.
Recently, researchers have devoted more attention to supercapacitors (SCs) to integrate with batteries in energy storage systems (ESSs) for vehicle applications. In this study, we attempted to characterize the use of SCs in the ESS for a PEM fuel cell vehicle equipped with an alternator to maximize the performance of regenerative braking. We applied lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and SCs as energy storage devices to examine their effect on ESS. Then we used a hysteresis brake to apply controllable braking force on the flywheel to form hybrid braking (HB) and made efforts to study its behavior to suggest a braking control strategy. We also ran the whole system over the rotational speed to cover the range of driving speed. At last, we sized the SCs for the most commonly used fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) in Korea, i.e., Hyundai NEXO, based on the results obtained from the above study by alternator efficiencies.  相似文献   
4.
In recent years, artificial intelligence (AI) is being increasingly utilised in disaster management activities. The public is engaged with AI in various ways in these activities. For instance, crowdsourcing applications developed for disaster management to handle the tasks of collecting data through social media platforms, and increasing disaster awareness through serious gaming applications. Nonetheless, there are limited empirical investigations and understanding on public perceptions concerning AI for disaster management. Bridging this knowledge gap is the justification for this paper. The methodological approach adopted involved: Initially, collecting data through an online survey from residents (n = 605) of three major Australian cities; Then, analysis of the data using statistical modelling. The analysis results revealed that: (a) Younger generations have a greater appreciation of opportunities created by AI-driven applications for disaster management; (b) People with tertiary education have a greater understanding of the benefits of AI in managing the pre- and post-disaster phases, and; (c) Public sector administrative and safety workers, who play a vital role in managing disasters, place a greater value on the contributions by AI in disaster management. The study advocates relevant authorities to consider public perceptions in their efforts in integrating AI in disaster management.  相似文献   
5.
This paper proposes a novel method combining Pinch Methodology and waste hydrogen recovery, aiming to minimise fresh hydrogen consumption and waste hydrogen discharge. The method of multiple-level resource Pinch Analysis is extended to the level of Total Site Hydrogen Integration by considering fresh hydrogen sources with various quality. Waste hydrogen after Total Site Integration is further regenerated. The technical feasibility and economy of the various purification approaches are considered, demonstrated with a case study of a refinery hydrogen network in a petrochemical industrial park. The results showed that fresh hydrogen usage and waste hydrogen discharge could be reduced by 21.3% and 67.6%. The hydrogen recovery ratio is 95.2%. It has significant economic benefits and a short payback period for Total Site Hydrogen Integration with waste hydrogen purification. The proposed method facilitates the reuse of waste hydrogen before the purification process that incurs an additional environmental footprint. In line with the Circular Economy principles, hydrogen resource is retained in the system as long as possible before discharge.  相似文献   
6.
Antimony triselenide (Sb2Se3) nanoflake-based nitrogen dioxide (NO2) sensors exhibit a progressive bifunctional gas-sensing performance, with a rapid alarm for hazardous highly concentrated gases, and an advanced memory-type function for low-concentration (<1 ppm) monitoring repeated under potentially fatal exposure. Rectangular and cuboid shaped Sb2Se3 nanoflakes, comprising van der Waals planes with large surface areas and covalent bond planes with small areas, can rapidly detect a wide range of NO2 gas concentrations from 0.1 to 100 ppm. These Sb2Se3 nanoflakes are found to be suitable for physisorption-based gas sensing owing to their anisotropic quasi-2D crystal structure with extremely enlarged van der Waals planes, where they are humidity-insensitive and consequently exhibit an extremely stable baseline current. The Sb2Se3 nanoflake sensor exhibits a room-temperature/low-voltage operation, which is noticeable owing to its low energy consumption and rapid response even under a NO2 gas flow of only 1 ppm. As a result, the Sb2Se3 nanoflake sensor is suitable for the development of a rapid alarm system. Furthermore, the persistent gas-sensing conductivity of the sensor with a slow decaying current can enable the development of a progressive memory-type sensor that retains the previous signal under irregular gas injection at low concentrations.  相似文献   
7.
将环隙式离心萃取器(ACCs)与电喷雾飞行时间质谱(ESI-TOF-MS)相结合,在线监测了回收过程中的钨萃取行为(宏观)和钨形态的转化路径(微观),发现宏观萃取反应和微观离子形态转化同时发生并相互补充。伯胺N1923萃取钨在144 s内即可达到萃取平衡,萃取率高达98%以上,同时,酸钨比n(H)/n(W)是一个关键变量,当酸钨比n(H)/n(W)=2.4时,全流程钨回收率超过93%。最后,得到了基于钨形态监测的萃取机理,同时,减少原料液中W1含量,增加W10含量,可有效提高钨回收效率。  相似文献   
8.
《Planning》2019,(6)
减少手术创伤始终是快速康复的决定性因素,这一点在目前的加速康复外科研究尤其是复杂手术,如妇科肿瘤手术中尚未得到充分重视。尊重学习曲线、全面规划手术方案、总结失利经验、开展前瞻性研究是解决此问题的主要方案。本文着重讨论妇科肿瘤手术创伤对术后加速康复的影响及可能的改进措施。  相似文献   
9.
The increase in the production of acid gas consisting of H2S, CO2, and associated impurities such as ammonia and hydrocarbons from oil and gas plants and gasification facilities has stimulated the interest in the development of alternative means of acid gas utilization to produce hydrogen and sulfur, simultaneously. The present literature lacks a detailed reaction mechanism that can reliably predict the thermal destruction of NH3 and its blend with H2S and CO2 to facilitate process optimization and commercialization. In this paper, a detailed mechanism of NH3 pyrolysis is developed and is merged with the reactions of NH3 oxidation and H2S/CO2 thermal decomposition from our previous works. The mechanism is validated successfully using different sets of experimental data on the pyrolysis and oxidation of NH3, H2S, and CO2. The proposed mechanism predicts the experimental data on NH3 pyrolysis remarkably better than the existing mechanisms in the literature. The mechanism is used to investigate the effects of NH3 concentration (0–20%) and reactor temperature (1000–1800 K) on the thermal decomposition of H2S and CO2. A synergistic effect is observed in the simultaneous decomposition of NH3 and CO2, i.e., NH3 conversion is improved in the presence of CO2 and the decomposition CO2 to CO is enhanced in the presence of NH3. The presence of H2S suppressed NH3 conversion, while the conversion of H2S remained unchanged with increasing NH3 concentration at temperature below 1400 K due to the low conversion of NH3 (up to 18%). At temperature above 1400 K, NH3 conversion increased rapidly and it triggered a decrease in H2S conversion as well as the yields of H2 and S2. The major reactions involved in the decomposition of H2S, CO2, and NH3 and the production of major products such as H2, S2, and CO are identified. The detailed reaction mechanism can facilitate the design and optimization of acid gas thermal decomposition to produce hydrogen and sulfur, simultaneously.  相似文献   
10.
Airline disruptions incurred huge cost for airlines and serious inconvenience for travelers. In this paper, we study the integrated aircraft and crew schedule recovery problem. A two stage heuristic algorithm for the integrated recovery problem is proposed. In the first stage, the integrated aircraft recovery and flight-rescheduling model with partial crew consideration is built. This model is based on the traditional multi-commodity network model for the aircraft schedule recovery problem. The objective of this model also includes minimization of the original crew connection disruption. In the second stage, the integrated crew schedule recovery and flight re-scheduling model with partial aircraft consideration is built. We proposed a new multi-commodity model for the crew schedule recovery. The main advantage of such model is that it is much more efficient to integrate the flight-scheduling and aircraft consideration. New constraints are incorporated to guarantee that the aircraft connections generated in the stage 1 are still feasible. Two stages are run iteratively until no improvement can be achieved. Experimental results show that our method can provide better recovery solutions compared with the benchmark algorithms.  相似文献   
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