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1.
The complexity and spatial heterogeneity of ecosystem processes driving ecosystem service delivery require spatially explicit models that take into account the different parameters affecting those processes. Current attempts to model ecosystem service delivery on a broad, regional scale often depend on indicator-based approaches that are generally not able to fully capture the complexity of ecosystem processes. Moreover, they do not allow quantification of uncertainty on their predictions. In this paper, we discuss a QGIS plug-in which promotes the use of Bayesian belief networks for regional modelling and mapping of ecosystem service delivery and associated uncertainties. Different types of specific Bayesian belief network output maps, delivered by the plug-in, are discussed and their decision support capacities are evaluated. This plug-in, used in combination with firmly developed Bayesian belief networks, has the potential to add value to current spatial ecosystem service accounting methods. The plug-in can also be used in other research domains dealing with spatial data and uncertainty.  相似文献   
2.
Rip currents near coastal structures commonly occur in Lake Michigan in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Lack of timely warning due to undocumented characteristics of rip currents and no assessment tool can contribute to tragic drownings incidents. In this paper, we characterized rip current occurrences near breakwater structures and developed an assessment tool for providing timely rip current warnings to beachgoers at the study site, City of Port Washington, WI. Characteristics of rip currents near the structure were observed from field measurements or visual images. Deflection rip currents had speeds of ~ 0.2 m/s and lasted for several hours. The rip current occurrences were associated with environmental proxies. It was found that rip currents can occur even when the water appears calm near the structure. A Structure Rip Checklist and Assessment Matrix (SRiCAM) with a four-tiered risk was developed and validated using observations. Furthermore, the SRiCAM was integrated into cyberinfrastructure with a data contingency plan to provide real-time warnings to the public. The applicability of the SRiCAM to other locations across Lake Michigan was further tested and results are promising. Overall, the SRiCAM has the potential to be widely extended to foster recreational water safety and resilience to rip current hazards in the Great Lakes.  相似文献   
3.
BackgroundFire protective ensembles (FPEs) are essential to safely perform firefighting job tasks; however, they are often burdensome to the workers. The aim of this study was to compare three internationally certified fire protective ensembles from the European Union (EU), South Korea (SK), and United States (US) on physiological responses, mobility, and comfort.MethodsTen male professional firefighters performed a battery of exercises in the laboratory following the ASTM F3031-17 standard to evaluate mobility, occupation-specific performance, and physiological responses (body weight, heart rate (HR), core temperature (Tc), breathing rate (BR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE)) to 20 min of treadmill walking (3.2 mph, 5% incline). All participants carried out the evaluation wearing each FPE in a random order. Mixed effects models examined time (pre-vs. post-) by ensemble (EU, SK, US) interactions for all physiological variables and compared comfort, performance, and subjective variables across ensembles.ResultsNo interaction effects were observed for body weight, HR, Tc, BR, or RPE (p = 0.890, p = 0.994, p = 0.897, p = 0.435, and p = 0.221; respectively). SK had greater trunk flexion than EU (78.4° vs. 74.6°, p = 0.026) and US had lower standing reach than EU (105.5 cm vs. 115.4 cm, p = 0.004). Agility circuit time was lower in US (9.3 s) compared to EU (9.8 s) or SK (9.9 s) (p = 0.051 and p = 0.019, respectively).ConclusionsThe findings suggest that physiological burden remained largely unchanged across the international FPEs. However, mobility, performance, and comfort may be significantly influenced across types. International stakeholders and end users should consider design implications when choosing fire protective ensembles.  相似文献   
4.
The oil palm industry is one of the important sectors in Malaysia. The growth and development of this industry shows that Malaysia is the world second-largest oil palm producers. However, in the fresh fruit bunch (FFB) harvesting process, the harvesters are exposed to many types of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). The FFB harvesters tend to develop WMSDs especially the shoulders and trunk. Hence, it is important to identify the exposure levels, awkward postures and the reaction forces of muscle activity based on the posture and movement of the harvesters when using pole, chisel and loading spike during the harvesting process. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the design of oil palm FFB harvesting tools on WMSDs of the upper body. Rapid Upper Limb Analysis (RULA) was used to investigate and assess the exposure level on the harvester body during the harvesting process. The assessment showed that the shoulders and trunk have high exposure level and undergo awkward posture. Human Musculoskeletal Model Analysis (HMMA) was used to identify the reaction force exerted on the muscle during the FFB harvesting process. In this study, 4 muscles were analysed including Triceps, Biceps, Erector Spinae and Psoas Major. The highest reaction force of 16.36 N was found on the left triceps when handling a loading spike. In conclusion, it is important to address the risks by reviewing all possible aspects that contribute to the WMSDs and interventions on the tool design, task and working shifts may be required.  相似文献   
5.
ABSTRACT

In this research, the effect of particle size on the surface oxidation and flotation behavior of galena in the lime system was studied. Coarse (?0.074 + 0.038 mm), intermediate (?0.038 + 0.025 mm) and fine (?0.025 mm) galena particles were used in the experiment. The dissolution tests, flotation tests, and sorption tests were accomplished. Through further analysis by XPS, the effect of particle size and lime was observed. The decrease of mineral particle sizes increased the adsorption ratio of collector and the dissolution of galena, while the hydrophilic product OH?/Ca(OH)+ produced by dissolution occupied the dominant position, which led to the minerals hydrophilic.  相似文献   
6.
在分析国土资源管理业务模型及"一张图"数据库关系的基础上,重点阐述基于业务驱动的"一张图"数据动态更新机制的原理、实现技术,并在成都市开展应用示范。本文提出基于业务并借助数据捕获、ETL工具实现"一张图"数据动态更新的新思路,为国土资源动态监管、分析核查与决策、防灾减灾提供数据支撑和信息服务。  相似文献   
7.
云南某锌窑渣Cu含量1.47%,Ag含量312 g/t,同时,窑渣中碳含量高达23.12%,为综合回收其中的Cu、Ag等有价金属进行了选矿试验研究.对浮选条件试验进行了研究.确定了最佳浮选条件并在此基础上进行了浮选闭路试验,结果表明,采用单一浮选工艺处理该窑渣Cu、Ag很难富集,铜精矿品位较低,并最终确定了"脱碳浮选—铜浮选—铜精矿浸出"的联合工艺流程,得到最终铜精矿Cu品位为11.83%,铜精矿含Ag品位为2 616 g/t,Cu、Ag的综合回收率分别为72.03%和75.06%,达到了综合回收窑渣中Cu、Ag的目的.采用联合工艺流程处理该窑渣避免了单一浮选工艺的局限性,极大地提高了铜精矿的品位.  相似文献   
8.
Sustainable management of groundwater-dependent vegetation (GDV) requires the accurate identification of GDVs, characterisation of their water use dynamics and an understanding of associated errors. This paper presents sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of one GDV mapping method which uses temperature differences between time-series of modelled and observed land surface temperature (LST) to detect groundwater use by vegetation in a subtropical woodland. Uncertainty in modelled LST was quantified using the Jacobian method with error variances obtained from literature. Groundwater use was inferred where modelled and observed LST were significantly different using a Student's t-test. Modelled LST was most sensitive to low-range wind speeds (<1.5 m s−1), low-range vegetation height (<=0.5 m), and low-range leaf area index (<=0.5 m2 m−2), limiting the detectability of groundwater use by vegetation under such conditions. The model-data approach was well-suited to detection of GDV because model-data errors were lowest for climatic conditions conducive to groundwater use.  相似文献   
9.
The concepts and technology of environmental decision support systems (EDSS) have developed considerably over recent decades, although core concepts such as flexibility and adaptability within a changing decision environment remain paramount. Much recent EDSS theory has focussed on model integration and re-use in decision support system (DSS) tools and for design and construction of ‘DSS generators’. Many current specific DSS have architectures, tools, models and operational characteristics that are either fixed or difficult to change in the face of changing management needs. This paper reports on development and deployment of an EDSS that encompasses a new approach to DSS tools, generators and specific DSS applications. The system, named E2, is built upon a conceptualisation of terrestrial and aquatic environmental systems that has resulted in a robust and flexible system architecture. The architecture provides a set of base classes to represent fundamental concepts, and which can be instantiated and combined to form DSS generators of varying complexity. A DSS generator is described within which system users are able to select and link models, data, analysis tools and reporting tools to create specific DSS for particular problems, and for which new models and tools can be created and, through software reflection (introspection), discovered to provide expanded capability where required. This system offers a new approach within which environmental systems can be described in the form of specific DSS at a scale and level of complexity suited to the problems and needs of decision makers.  相似文献   
10.
Crop yield is a key element in rural development and an indicator of national food security. A method that could estimate crop yield over large hilly areas would be highly desirable. Methods including high spatial resolution satellite imagery have the potential to achieve this objective. This paper describes a method of integrating QuickBird imagery with a production efficiency model (PEM) to estimate crop yield in Zhonglianchuan, a hilly area on Loess Plateau, China. In the PEM model, crop yield is a function of the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR) and light-use efficiency (LUE). Based on the high spatial resolution QuickBird imagery, a land cover classification is used to attribute a class-specific LUE. The fAPAR is related to spectral vegetation indices (SVI), which can be derived from the satellite images. The LUE, fAPAR and incident PAR data were combined to estimate the crop yield. Farmer-reported crop yield data in 80 representative plots were used to validate the model output. The results indicated QuickBird imagery can improve the accuracy of predicted results relative to the Landsat TM image. The predicted yield approximated well with the data reported by the farmers (r2 = 0.86; n = 80). The spatial distributions of crop yield derived here also offers valuable information to manage agricultural production and understand ecosystem functioning.  相似文献   
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