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Journal of Materials Science - Chitosan is one of the natural cationic polymers with unique properties such as non-toxicity, biodegradability, biocompatibility, environmentally friendly that has...  相似文献   
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Cell temperature and water content of the membrane have a significant effect on the performance of fuel cells. The current-power curve of the fuel cell has a maximum power point (MPP) that is needed to be tracked. This study presents a novel strategy based on a salp swarm algorithm (SSA) for extracting the maximum power of proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). At first, a new formula is derived to estimate the optimal voltage of PEMFC corresponding to MPP. Then the error between the estimated voltage at MPP and the actual terminal voltage of the fuel cell is fed to a proportional-integral-derivative controller (PID). The output of the PID controller tunes the duty cycle of a boost converter to maximize the harvested power from the PEMFC. SSA determines the optimal gains of PID. Sensitivity analysis is performed with the operating fuel cell at different cell temperature and water content of the membrane. The obtained results through the proposed strategy are compared with other programmed approaches of incremental resistance method, Fuzzy-Logic, grey antlion optimizer, wolf optimizer, and mine-blast algorithm. The obtained results demonstrated high reliability and efficiency of the proposed strategy in extracting the maximum power of the PEMFC.  相似文献   
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Parameter estimation plays an important role in the field of system control. This article is concerned with the parameter estimation methods for multivariable systems in the state-space form. For the sake of solving the identification complexity caused by a large number of parameters in multivariable systems, we decompose the original multivariable system into some subsystems containing fewer parameters and study identification algorithms to estimate the parameters of each subsystem. By taking the maximum likelihood criterion function as the fitness function of the differential evolution algorithm, we present a maximum likelihood-based differential evolution (ML-DE) algorithm for parameter estimation. To improve the parameter estimation accuracy, we introduce the adaptive mutation factor and the adaptive crossover factor into the ML-DE algorithm and propose a maximum likelihood-based adaptive differential evolution algorithm. The simulation study indicates the efficiency of the proposed algorithms.  相似文献   
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Watermelon peel residues were used to produce a new biochar by dehydration method. The new biochar has undergone two methods of chemical modification and the effect of this chemical modification on its ability to adsorb Cr(VI) ions from aqueous solution has been investigated. Three biochars, Melon-B, Melon-BO-NH_2 and Melon-BO-TETA, were made from watermelon peel via dehydration with 50% sulfuric acid to give Melon-B followed by oxidation with ozone and amination using ammonium hydroxide to give Melon-BO-NH_2 or Triethylenetetramine(TETA) to give Melon-BO-TETA. The prepared biochars were characterized by BET, BJH,SEM, FT-IR, TGA, DSC and EDAX analyses. The highest removal percentage of Cr(VI) ions was 69% for Melon-B,98% for Melon-BO-NH_2 and 99% for Melon-BO-TETA biochars of 100 mg·L~(-1) Cr(VI) ions initial concentration and 1.0 g·L~(-1) adsorbents dose. The unmodified biochar(Melon-B) and modified biochars(Melon-BO-NH_2 and Melon-BO-TETA) had maximum adsorption capacities(Qm) of 72.46, 123.46, and 333.33 mg·g~(-1), respectively.The amination of biochar reduced the pore size of modified biochar, whereas the surface area was enhanced.The obtained data of isotherm models were tested using different error function equations. The Freundlich,Tempkin and Langmuir isotherm models were best fitted to the experimental data of Melon-B, Melon-BO-NH_2 and Melon-BO-TETA, respectively. The adsorption rate was primarily controlled by pseudo-second–order rate model. Conclusively, the functional groups interactions are important for adsorption mechanisms and expected to control the adsorption process. The adsorption for the Melon-B, Melon-BO-NH_2 and Melon-BO-TETA could be explained for acid–base interaction and hydrogen bonding interaction.  相似文献   
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This paper considers the state‐dependent interference relay channel (SIRC) in which one of the two users may operate as a secondary user and the relay has a noncausal access to the signals from both users. For discrete memoryless SIRC, we first establish the achievable rate region by carefully merging Han‐Kobayashi rate splitting encoding technique, superposition encoding, and Gelfand‐Pinsker encoding technique. Then, based on the achievable rate region that we derive, the capacity of the SIRC is established in many different scenarios including (a) the weak interference regime, (b) the strong interference regime, and (c) the very strong interference regime. This means that our capacity results contain all available known results in the literature. Next, the achievable rate region and the associated capacity results are also evaluated in the case of additive Gaussian noise. Additionally, many numerical examples are investigated to show the value of our theoretical derivations.  相似文献   
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