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As we approach 100 nm technology the interconnect issues are becoming one of the main concerns in the testing of gigahertz system-on-chips. Voltage distortion (noise) and delay violations (skew) contribute to the signal integrity loss and ultimately functional error, performance degradation and reliability problems. In this paper, we first define a model for integrity faults on the high-speed interconnects. Then, we present a BIST-based test methodology that includes two special cells to detect and measure noise and skew occurring on the interconnects of the gigahertz system-on-chips. Using an inexpensive test architecture the integrity information accumulated by these special cells can be scanned out for final test and reliability analysis.  相似文献   
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Industrial pelletizing of sawdust was carried out as a designed experiment in the factors: sawdust moisture content, fractions of fresh pine, stored pine and spruce. The process parameters and response variables were energy consumption, pellet flow rate, pellet bulk density, durability and moisture content. The final data consisted of twelve industrial scale runs. Because of the many response variables, data evaluation was by principal component analysis of a 12 × 9 data matrix. The two principal component model showed a clustering of samples, with a good reproducibility of the center points. It also showed a positive correlation of energy consumption, bulk density and durability all negatively correlated to flow rate and moisture content. The stored pine was more related to high durability and bulk density. The role of the spruce fraction was unclear. The design matrix, augmented with the process parameters was a 12 × 6 matrix. Partial least squares regression showed excellent results for pellet moisture content and bulk density. The model for durability was promising. A 12 × 21 data matrix of fatty- and resin acid concentrations measured by GC–MS showed the differences between fresh and stored pine very clearly. The influence of the spruce fraction was less clear. However, the influence of the fatty- and resin acids on the pelletizing process could not be confirmed, indicating that other differences between fresh and stored pine sawdust have to be investigated. This work shows that it is possible to design the pelletizing process for moderate energy consumption and high pellet quality.  相似文献   
4.
The mechanical, morphological behavior and water absorption characteristics of polypropylene (PP) and silica, or PP and rice‐husk, composites have been studied. The silica used in this study as filler was a commercial type produced from soluble glass or rice husks. The compatibilizing effect of PP grafted with monomethyl itaconate (PP‐g‐MMI) and/or with vinyltriethoxysilane (PP‐g‐VTES) as polar monomers on the mechanical properties and water absorption was also investigated. In general, a high loading of the studied fillers in the polymer matrix increases the stiffness and the water absorption capacity. This effect is more noticeable in the tensile modulus of the PP/silica composite with PP‐g‐VTES as compatibilizer. However, the increase of the rice‐husk charge as a natural filler in the PP matrix decreases the stiffness, and in the presence of PP‐g‐MMI as compatibilizer in PP/rice‐husk, the tensile modulus and water absorption of the composite were improved. The better adhesion and phase continuity in the PP/silica and PP/rice‐husk composites with different compatibilizers was confirmed by the morphological study. Copyright © 2004 Society of Chemical Industry  相似文献   
5.

Air flow has significant effects on fuel consumption, performance, and comfort. Decreasing drag coefficient enhances fuel consumption and vehicle performance. Moreover, omitting or reducing the power of aerodynamic noise sources provides passengers comfort. In this paper, optimization of a hatchback rear end is conducted considering drag and aerodynamic noise objectives. To this end, five geometrical parameters of the hatchback rear end are chosen as design variables in two levels. Numerical simulation is applied to survey air flow features around the models in the wind tunnel. To reduce the number of runs, fraction factorial design algorithm is applied to generate layout of the simulations which decreased the number of case studies to half. Main and interaction effects of these factors on drag coefficient and acoustic power of the rear end source are derived using analysis of variance. Optimum level for each parameter is chosen considering simultaneous drag and noise goals. Finally, characteristics of air flow and acoustic power around optimum model are discussed.

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Vegetable oil refinery waste containing acid oil is used as an inexpensive feedstock for producing biodiesel by microwave-assisted esterification (MAE) method. Effects of some main variables such as free fatty acid:methanol molar ratio (1:1, 1:5, and 1:10), reaction time (5, 30, and 60 min), and catalyst concentration (1%, 2%, and 3%) on physicochemical properties of produced biodiesel are investigated. Optimum reaction conditions of MAE are free fatty acid:methanol molar ratio of 1:10, reaction time of 60 min, and a catalyst concentration of 3%, while having 95.79% conversion yield. By increasing the conversion yield of the biodiesel, density and color brightness increase, while viscosity and refractive index decrease. There are no significant differences between physicochemical and heating properties of biodiesel produced by MAE and magnetic stirrer esterification (MSE) methods. Meanwhile, energy consumption of MAE method is almost four times lower than that of MSE. MAE as a promising alternative to the conventional esterification method can be considered as an energy-efficient method for producing biodiesel from inexpensive vegetable oil refinery waste. Practical applications : Acid oil is an inexpensive by-product of alkali refining in vegetable oil plants that would pollute the environment if not rendered safely. In this study, MAE is used to convert acid oil to biodiesel as a practical process for bringing alkali refining waste into production cycle. Acid oil can provide a reduction in the cost of biodiesel production. In addition, application of energy-efficient MAE method can facilitate the economical production of biodiesel.  相似文献   
7.
Summary 1-Octadecene (C18) was polymerized by using different metallocene catalysts. The rac-Et(Ind)2ZrC12/MAO (I) and rac-Me2Si(Ind)2ZrC12/MAO (III) presented the highest activity as compared with ra-Et(2-Me-Ind)2ZrCl2/MAO (II) and Ph2C(Flu)(Cp)ZrC12/MAO (IV) catalysts. Catalyst IV produced polymers with highest molecular weights. The microstructure of the polymers was determined by 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Catalyst systems I, II and III produced isotactic polymers while catalyst IV produced polymers with mainly syndiotactic structures but with large amount of stereoregular error. Received: 21 June 2002/Revised version: 4 November 2002/ Accepted: 4 November 2002  相似文献   
8.
The purpose of this work was to study how mineral fillers would behave in a polypropylene (PP) matrix when PP modified with maleic anhydride (MA) and/or itaconic acid (IA) was used as a coupling agent in the preparation of mineral‐filled PP composites. The composites were characterized with tensile mechanical measurements and morphological analysis. The optimum amount of the coupling agent to be used to obtain composites with improved mechanical properties was established. The results indicated that these coupling agents enhanced the tensile strength of the composites significantly, and the extent of the coupling effect depended on the nature of the interface that formed. The incorporation of coupling agents enhanced the resistance to deformation of the composite. The behavior of IA‐modified PP as a coupling agent was similar to that of a commercial MA‐modified PP for the filled PP composites. Evidence of improved interfacial bonding was revealed by scanning electron microscopy studies, which examined the surfaces of fractured tensile test specimens; their microstructures confirmed the mechanical results with respect to the observed homogeneous or optimized dispersion of the mineral‐filler phase in these composites. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 103: 2343–2350, 2007  相似文献   
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This article proposes a novel algorithm to improve the lifetime of a wireless sensor network. This algorithm employs swarm intelligence algorithms in conjunction with compressive sensing theory to build up the routing trees and to decrease the communication rate. The main contribution of this article is to extend swarm intelligence algorithms to build a routing tree in such a way that it can be utilized to maximize efficiency, thereby rectifying the delay problem of compressive sensing theory and improving the network lifetime. In addition, our approach offers accurate data recovery from small amounts of compressed data. Simulation results show that our approach can effectively extend the network lifetime of a large‐scale wireless sensor network.  相似文献   
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