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1.
The article investigates the finite-time adaptive fuzzy control for a class of nonlinear systems with output constraint and input dead-zone. First, by skillfully combining the barrier Lyapunov function, backstepping design method, and finite-time control theory, a novel adaptive state-feedback tracking controller is constructed, and the output constraint of the nonlinear system is not violated. Second, the fuzzy logic system is used to approximate unknown function in the nonlinear system. Third, the finite-time command filter is introduced to avoid the problem of “complexity explosion” caused by repeated differentiations of the virtual control signal in conventional backstepping control schemes. Meanwhile, a new saturation function is added in the compensating signal for filter error to improve control accuracy. Finally, based on Lyapunov stability analysis, all the signals of the closed-loop are proved to be semi-globally uniformly ultimately bounded, and the tracking error converges to a small neighborhood region of the origin in a finite time. A simulation example is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness for the proposed control scheme.  相似文献   
2.
Mangiferin (MGF) is a phenolic compound isolated from mango, but its poor solubility significantly limits its use. In this study, MGF was embedded into the inner aqueous phase of W1/O/W2 emulsions. Firstly, the dissolution method of MGF was determined. MGF remained stable in solution with pH 13 at 30 min, and its solubility reached 10 mg mL−1. When the pH of MGF solutions was adjusted from pH 13 to pH 6, MGF did not immediately crystallise, providing sufficient time to construct the MGF-loaded W1/O/W2 emulsions. Subsequently, the MGF-loaded W1/O/W2 emulsions were constructed using polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) and calcium caseinate (CAS). The formation and stability of the W1/O/W2 emulsions were investigated. The MGF-loaded W1/O/W2 emulsions stabilised with 1% PGPR and 1% – 3% CAS exhibited a low viscosity, limited loading capacity, and poor stability. Conversely, the MGF-loaded W1/O/W2 emulsions stabilised by 3%PGPR–3%CAS exhibited optimal loading capacity (encapsulation efficiency = 95.31% and loading efficiency = 0.91%) and stability, which was attributed to the fact that high viscosity and gel state retarded the migration of inner aqueous phase. These results indicated that the W1/O/W2 emulsions stabilised by PGPR and CAS may be a potential alternative for encapsulating mangiferin.  相似文献   
3.
In recent years, the invert anomalies of operating railway tunnels in water-rich areas occur frequently, which greatly affect the transportation capacity of the railway lines. Tunnel drainage system is a crucial factor to ensure the invert stability by regulating the external water pressure (EWP). By means of a three-dimensional (3D) printing model, this paper experimentally investigates the deformation behavior of the invert for the tunnels with the traditional drainage system (TDS) widely used in China and its optimized drainage system (ODS) with bottom drainage function. Six test groups with a total of 110 test conditions were designed to consider the design factors and environmental factors in engineering practice, including layout of the drainage system, blockage of the drainage system and groundwater level fluctuation. It was found that there are significant differences in the water discharge, EWP and invert stability for the tunnels with the two drainage systems. Even with a dense arrangement of the external blind tubes, TDS was still difficult to eliminate the excessive EWP below the invert, which is the main cause for the invert instability. Blockage of drainage system further increased the invert uplift and aggravated the track irregularity, especially when the blockage degree is more than 50%. However, ODS can prevent these invert anomalies by reasonably controlling the EWP at tunnel bottom. Even when the groundwater level reached 60 m and the blind tubes were fully blocked, the invert stability can still be maintained and the railway track experienced a settlement of only 1.8 mm. Meanwhile, the on-site monitoring under several rainstorms further showed that the average EWP of the invert was controlled within 84 kPa, while the maximum settlement of the track slab was only 0.92 mm, which also was in good agreement with the results of model test.  相似文献   
4.
ABSTRACT

Absorbed-dose estimation is essential for evaluation of the radiation tolerance of minor-actinide-separation processes. We propose a dose-evaluation method based on radiation permeability, with comparisons of heterogeneous structures seen in the solvent-extraction process, such as emulsions forming in the mixture of the organic and aqueous phases. A demonstration of radiation-energy-transfer simulation is performed with a focus on the minor-actinide-recovery process from high-level liquid waste with the aid of the Monte Carlo radiation-transport code PHITS. The simulation results indicate that the dose absorbed by the extraction solvent from alpha radiation depends upon the emulsion structure, and that from beta and gamma radiation depends upon the mixer-settler-apparatus size. Non-negligible contributions of well-permeable gamma rays were indicated in terms of the plant operation of the minor-actinide-separation process.  相似文献   
5.
By choosing a triple block polymer, poly(styrene-b-(ethylene-co-butylene)-b-styrene) (SEBS), as the backbone and adopting a long side-chain double-cation crosslinking strategy, a series of SEBS-based anion-exchange membranes (AEMs) was successively synthesized by chloromethylation, quaternization, crosslinking, solution casting, and alkalization. The 70C16-SEBS-TMHDA membrane showed high OH conductivity (72.13 mS/cm at 80 °C) and excellent alkali stability (only 10.86% degradation in OH conductivity after soaking in 4-M NaOH for 1700 h at 80 °C). Furthermore, the SR was only 9.3% at 80 °C and the peak power density of the H2/O2 single cell was up to 189 mW/cm2 at a current density of 350 mA/cm2 at 80 °C. By introducing long flexible side chains into a polymer SEBS backbone, the structure of the hydrophilic–hydrophobic microphase separation in the membrane was constructed to improve the ionic conductivity. Additionally, network crosslinked structure improved dimensional stability and mechanical properties.  相似文献   
6.
Developing the thermal stability of metal-based ceramic composites or their films has always been challenging and bottlenecks for the utilization of energy. In this paper, the novel mesh-like functional Al doped-MoO3 nanocomposite film with even distribution and high purity was firstly fabricated by the high-efficiency electrophoretic deposition and surface modification. The optimal suspension turned out to be the mixture of isopropanol and the additives of polyethyleneimine and benzoic acid. The microtopography, crystalline structure, environmental resistance and thermal stability were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), exposure and droplet-impacting test, DSC analysis and ignition test, respectively. The water contact angle and sliding angle of product can reach ~170° and <1°, indicating the excellent anti-wetting property. In addition, the high heat-release (~3180 J/g) of product all kept almost unchangeable after six months exposure experiments, demonstrating the outstanding thermostability. The exquisite design idea here can perfectly match microelectromechanical system (MEMS), providing the valuable reference for fabricating other metal-based high-energy composites with long lifespan for real industrial applications.  相似文献   
7.
Aromatic and functional polymers with processibility derived from biobased starting materials are prerequisite considering sustainable society. Poly(2,5-benzimidazole)s are rigid-rod polymers to show ultrahigh thermal stability such as flame retardance, while usually suffer from poor solubility. Here, poly(benzimidazole-co-amide)s are synthesized from two biobased monomers, 3,4-diaminobenzoic acid and a semirigid comonomer, 4-aminohydrocinnamic acid. The copolymers with an amide composition of 80 mol% and higher are soluble in widely used polar solvents to fabricate the films keeping high flame retardance, which is comparable with popular high-performance polymers such as aromatic polyimides, polyetheretherketone, polyphenylene sulfide, etc.  相似文献   
8.
Micro-combustor is a portable power device that can provide energy efficiently, heat recirculating is considered to be an important factor affecting the combustion process. For enhancing the heat recirculating and improving the combustion stability, we proposed a heat-recirculating micro-combustor embedded with porous media, and the numerical simulation was carried out by CFD software. In this paper, the effect of porous media materials, thickness and inlet conditions (equivalence ratio, inlet velocity) on the temperature distribution and exhaust species in the micro combustor are investigated. The results showed that compared with the micro combustor without embedded porous media (MCNPM), micro-combustor embedded with porous media (MCEPM) can improve the temperature uniformity distribution in the radial direction and strengthen the preheating capacity. However, it is found that the embedding thickness of porous media should be reasonably arranged. Setting the thickness of porous media to 15 mm, the combustor can obtain excellent comprehensive capacity of steady combustion and heat recirculating. Compared the thermal performance of Al2O3, SiC, and ZrO2 porous media materials, indicating that SiC due to its strong thermal conductivity, its combustion stabilization and heat recirculating capacity are obviously better than that of Al2O3 and ZrO2. With the porous media embedded in the micro combustor, the combustion has a tempering limit of more than 10 m/s, and the flame is blown out of the porous media area over 100 m/s. The reasonable equivalence ratio of CH4/air combustion should be controlled within the range of 0.1–0.5, and “super-enthalpy combustion” can be realized.  相似文献   
9.
Ce:Y3Al5O12 transparent ceramics (TCs) with appropriate emission light proportion and high thermal stability are significant to construct white light emitting diode devices with excellent chromaticity parameters. In this work, strategies of controlling crystal-field splitting around Ce3+ ion and doping orange-red emitting ion, were adopted to fabricate Ce:(Y,Tb)3(Al,Mn)5O12 TCs via vacuum sintering technique. Notably, 85.4 % of the room-temperature luminescence intensity of the TC was retained at 150 °C, and the color rendering index was as high as 79.8. Furthermore, a 12 nm red shift and a 16.2 % increase of full width at half maximum were achieved owing to the synergistic effects of Tb3+ and Mn2+ ions. By combining TCs with a 460 nm blue chip, a warm white light with a low correlated color temperature of 4155 K was acquired. Meanwhile, the action mechanism of Tb3+ ion and the energy transfer between Ce3+ and Mn2+ ions were verified in prepared TCs.  相似文献   
10.
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