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1.

Beneficial effects of wettability altering surfactants in oil-wet fractured reservoirs

**总被引：3，自引：0，他引：3** Subhash C. Ayirala Chandra S. Vijapurapu Dandina N. Rao 《Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering》2006,52(1-4):261

In fractured reservoirs, an effective matrix-fracture mass transfer is required for oil recovery. Surfactants have long been considered for oil recovery enhancement, mainly in terms of their ability to reduce oil–water interfacial tension. These surfactants are effective when the fractured formations are water-wet, where capillary imbibition of surfactants from the fracture into the matrix contributes to oil recovery. However, another beneficial aspect of surfactants, namely their ability to alter wettability, remains to be explored and exploited. Surfactants capable of altering wettability can be especially beneficial in oil-wet fractured formations, where the surfactant in the fracture diffuses into the matrix and alters the wettability, enabling imbibition of even more surfactant into the matrix. This sequential process of initial diffusion followed by imbibition continues well into the matrix yielding significant enhancements in oil recovery.In order to test this hypothesis of sequential diffusion–imbibition phenomenon, Dual-Drop Dual-Crystal (DDDC) contact angle experiments have been conducted using fractured Yates dolomite reservoir fluids, two types of surfactants (nonionic and anionic) and dolomite rock substrates. A new experimental procedure was developed in which crude oil equilibrated with reservoir brine has been exposed to surfactant to simulate the matrix-fracture interactions in fractured reservoirs. This procedure enables the measurements of dynamic contact angles and oil–water interfacial tensions, in addition to providing the visual observations of the dynamic behavior of crude oil trapped in the rock matrix as it encounters the diffusing surfactant from the fractures. Both the measurements and visual observations indicate wettability alterations of the matrix surface from oil-wet to less oil-wet or intermediate wet by the surfactants. Thus this study is of practical importance to oil-wet fractured formations where surfactant-induced wettability alterations can result in significant oil recovery enhancements. In addition, this study has also identified the need to include contact angle term in the dimensionless Bond number formulations for better quantitative interpretation of rock–fluids interactions. 相似文献

2.

燕皮传统加工工艺中碱液对肉糜特性的影响

**总被引：1，自引：1，他引：0**燕皮是以猪肉和甘薯粉为原料,手工制成的薄如纸且经煮不烂的传统食品。在传统制作燕皮过程中添加山榉灰配制的碱液是影响肉糜品质的关键步骤。通过测定制作燕皮过程中各工序样品的氮溶解指数、持水性、乳化稳定性、pH值和粘度,利用SDS-PAGE分析样品中的蛋白质组分、利用光学显微镜观察它们的结构变化,证实植物碱液能够提高样品的氮溶解指数、持水性和乳化稳定性并且延迟了肉糜硬化。同时实验证明碳酸碱(Na2CO3或K2CO3)可替代传统工艺中的植物碱,为后续标准化、工业化生产提供可行条件。 相似文献

3.

The introduction of high spatial and spectral resolution sensors on-board remote-sensing spacecraft has increased, by orders of magnitude, the data rates which need to be sustained on the down-link or cross-link transmission channels. Since these channels are severely limited in capacity, the need arises to perform on-board compression to reduce the volume of data which would need to be down-linked. This paper discusses the development and refinement of a low complexity lossy spectral/spatial compression method which provides high compression ratios at low levels of distortion. The developed techniques uses pixels in adjacent bands to predict the intensity of pixels in the band being compressed via a simple linear prediction model. This prediction method when combined with a low-distortion discrete cosine transform (DCT) block coding method yields performance comparable to block-adaptive Karhunen-Loeve Transform (KLT)-DCT methods without incurring the complexity penalty of the KLT. The methods' performance suffers under misregistration. A fractional-pixel interpolation enhancement to the basic technique significantly improves the performance in the case of misregistered bands 相似文献

4.

Thanapalan Murugesan G. S. Venkat Rathnam S. Panduranga Rao P. Gangadhar Rao 《Journal of chemical technology and biotechnology (Oxford, Oxfordshire : 1986)》1995,63(3):290-294

In the present study of gas–liquid contactors, mean residence/contact time was calculated from knowledge of superficial velocity and the gas phase hold-up, for various gas rates and impeller geometry and speeds, and compared with values obtained from RTD measurements. A new correlation, involving Flow Number, Froude Number, system geometry and the physical properties, is proposed. This uses the authors data and those available in literature. 相似文献

5.

In this article, we describe a new approach to applying distributed artificial intelligence techniques to manufacturing processes. The construction of intelligent systems is one of the most important techniques among artificial intelligence research. Our goal is to develop an integrated intelligent system for real time manufacturing processes. An integrated intelligent system is a large knowledge integration environment that consists of several symbolic reasoning systems (expert systems) and numerical computation packages. These software programs are controlled by a meta-system which manages the selection, operation and communication of these programs. A meta-system can be implemented in different language environments and applied to many disciplines. This new architecture can serve as a universal configuration to develop high performance intelligent systems for many complicated industrial applications in real world domains.To whom all correspondence should be addressed. 相似文献

6.

Previous work by Li et al. in the area of axial vibrations of bellows dealt with fixed end conditions. However, it is seen on several occasions that bellow ends are welded to a small pipe spool that has a lumped mass such as a valve or an instrument. Hence, the present paper aims at finding out the effect of elastically restrained ends on the axial natural frequencies. The analysis considers finite stiffness axial restraints on the bellows, i.e. solving the set of equations with non-homogeneous boundary conditions. Two bellow specimens are considered for comparison having the same dimensions as taken by Li in his analysis. The transcendental frequency equation deduced is accurate as the first, second and third mode frequencies computed are in close agreement to the ones obtained by Li. 相似文献

7.

In this paper, we examine methods of characterizing somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP's) in both the time and frequency domains. We have found that the truncated impulse response (TIR) method produced an accurate time domain model of the SEP signals at model orders greatly reduced from the original state space matrix. The TIR method was valuable for smoothing signals that were slightly corrupted by noise. In this case, the simulated data sequence was close to the original data sequence in the mean squared error sense. For signals that were greatly corrupted by noise, the TIR method was not able to perform as well. Therefore, the TIR method was not a feature extraction method but was valuable for data simulation. In the frequency domain, we have used the autoregressive moving average model (ARMA) to parameterize the SEP signal. An overdetermined set of Yule-Walker equations was created to determine the autoregressive (AR) parameters of the original data with the model order established by the singular value decomposition. From these AR parameters, a residual time series was generated which was used to find the moving average parameters. The resulting ARMA model was used to produce a simulated data sequence. The frequency domain characteristics of the simulated sequence and the corresponding power spectral density of the ARMA filter were very close to the periodogram of the original data sequence. Accurate parameterization was achieved for the SEP waveforms at low filter lengths. 相似文献

8.

9.

10.

Summary The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary layer flow over a flat plate is examined here for two cases, viz. a uniform free-stream velocity and a uniform hydrostatic pressure. The nonlinear boundary layer equations are solved using a reliable finite-difference method. The boundary layer physical parameters such as skin-friction coefficient, displacement, momentum and energy thicknesses of the boundary layer are determined. It is found that the normal surface velocity gradient decreases with the local magnetic interaction parameter for the cases of a uniform hydrostatic pressure, whereas in the case of a uniform free-stream volocity it increases with the interaction parameter. 相似文献