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Hydraulic fracturing with slickwater is a field-proven stimulation technology used in tight reservoirs. Because of the high pumping rate associated with slickwater fracturing, drag reduction (DR) is critical in minimizing pressure drop and the success of oilfield operations. In this paper, a new type of drag reducer (SPR) was synthesized with acrylamide and 12-allyloxydodecyl acid sodium, and its drag reduction performance was evaluated. The results showed that the new drag reducer features low molecular weight, fast-dissolving rate and low interfacial tension. The algorithm of estimating the drag reduction rate of non-Newtonian fluid SPR was proposed and validated. Empirical or semianalytical models for estimating the friction ratio (σ) or friction factor (λ or f) were used to simulate the turbulence behavior of the SPR drag reducer under different Reynolds numbers (Re). The modified Virk's correlation could accurately model the turbulent behavior of the SPR drag reducer. A unified calculation formula was established in this study for different pipe diameters.  相似文献   
3.
Synthetic active matters are perfect model systems for non-equilibrium thermodynamics and of great potential for novel biomedical and environmental applications. However, most applications are limited by the complicated and low-yield preparation, while a scalable synthesis for highly functional microswimmers is highly desired. In this paper, an all-solution synthesis method is developed where the gold-loaded titania-silica nanotree can be produced as a multi-functional self-propulsion microswimmer. By applying light, heat, and electric field, the Janus nanotree demonstrated multi-mode self-propulsion, including photochemical self-electrophoresis by UV and visible light radiation, thermophoresis by near-infrared light radiation, and induced-charge electrophoresis under AC electric field. Due to the scalable synthesis, the Janus nanotree is further demonstrated as a high-efficiency, low-cost, active adsorbent for water decontamination, where the toxic mercury ions can be reclaimed with enhanced efficiency.  相似文献   
4.
Ambient condition, especially the wind condition, is an important factor to determine the behavior of hydrogen diffusion during hydrogen release. However, only few studies aim at the quantitative study of the hydrogen diffusion in a wind-exist condition. And very little researches aiming at the variable wind condition have been done. In this paper, the hydrogen diffusion in different wind condition which including the constant wind velocity and the variable wind velocity is investigated numerically. When considering the variable wind velocity, the UDF (user defined function) is compiled. Characteristics of the FGC (flammable gas cloud) and the HMF (hydrogen mass fraction) are analyzed in different wind condition and comparisons are made with the no-wind condition. Results indicate that the constant wind velocity and the variable wind velocity have totally different effect for the determination of hydrogen diffusion. Comparisons between the constant wind velocity and the variable wind velocity indicate that the variable wind velocity may cause a more dangerous situation since there has a larger FGC volume. More importantly, the wind condition has a non-negligible effect when considering the HMF along the radial direction. As the wind velocity increases, the distribution of the HMF along the radial direction is not Gaussian anymore when the distance between the release hole and the observation line exceeds to a critical value. This work can be a supplement of the research on the hydrogen release and diffusion and a valuable reference for the researchers.  相似文献   
5.
Equilibrium swelling and rheological tests were adopted to systematically investigate the effects of softener type and dosage on the crosslink densities. The results turned out that the chemical crosslink density could be distinguished from the physical crosslink density by comparing the results of equilibrium swelling and rheological tests. The liquid butadiene (LB) as a softener leads to the greatest reduction in crosslink density, followed by polyethylene wax (PW) and paraffinic oil (PO). The tensile strength decreases with increasing PO content while shows peak values with increase of LB and PW contents. The dependencies of chemical crosslink density on the aging time under 150°C are quite different for the three softeners, which can be expected from the double crosslinking networks consisting of small softener and large main crosslinking networks. Further investigation has been performed to correlate the tensile strength with chemical crosslink density of ethylene propylene diene monomer elastomer vulcanizates. Three different linear relationships can be obtained for the softeners independent of the aging time. It can now be expected from this study that the role of some new softeners in rubber compounds is not only confined to plasticization but also forms crosslinking networks in the peroxide-cured rubbers.  相似文献   
6.
向森 《电子测试》2021,(6):125-126
电路板在我们的日常生活中非常常见,这就使得印刷电路板的缺陷检测显得尤为重要。AOI作为新兴的检测PCB板缺陷的系统,在生产实际中正在被大家熟知并且应用。相较于传统的检测方式,AOI系统比较灵活,无论是在检测时间还是系统运算上,或者是对相关技术人员的要求相较于传统方式都比较有优势,本文就AOI系统在实际中的应用展开讨论,分析并且介绍了在实际应用中的具体细则。  相似文献   
7.
Peng  Jing  Yu  Lei  Zhong  Xiang  Dong  Tiansong 《Water Resources Management》2022,36(3):1043-1055
Water Resources Management - The low impact development (LID) concept aims to control storm runoff and pollution through decentralized, small-scale source control to bring the development area as...  相似文献   
8.
A new eight-node conforming quadrilateral element with high-order completeness, denoted as QH8-C1, is proposed in this article. First, expressions for the interpolation displacement function satisfying the requirements for high-order completeness in the global coordinate system are constructed. Second, the displacement function expression in global coordinates is transformed into isoparametric coordinates, and the relationships between the two series of coefficients for the two kinds of displacement function expressions are found. Third, the displacement function expression is modified to satisfy the requirements of nodal freedom and interelement boundary continuity. The key to the new element construction is the derivation of the linear relationship expressions among 12 coefficients of element displacement interpolation polynomials in the global and isoparametric coordinate systems. As a result, the relationship between quadratic completeness and interelement continuity is explicitly given, and a proof of the completeness and the continuity was conducted to theoretically guarantee the validity of the derivation results. Furthermore, in order to verify the correctness of the theoretical work, nine numerical examples were performed. The computation results from these examples demonstrate that QH8-C1 exhibited excellent performance, including high simulation accuracy, fast convergence, insensitivity to mesh distortion, and monotonic convergence.  相似文献   
9.
根据柴油机机体裂纹产生的原因,对机体裂纹缺陷进行分析,找到了机体裂纹产生的主要原因。其主要原因可概括为铸件结构、化学成分、铸件补缩条件及开箱温度等,针对裂纹的主要原因采取相应的措施后,裂纹缺陷得到了根本的控制。  相似文献   
10.
The environmental performance of 316L grade stainless steel, in the form of tensile specimens containing a single corrosion pit with various aspect ratios, under cyclic loading in aerated chloride solutions is investigated in this study. Results from environmental tests were compared and contrasted with those obtained using finite element analysis (FEA). Fractography of the failed specimens obtained from experiments revealed that fatigue crack initiation took place at the base of the shallow pit. The crack initiation shifted towards the shoulder and the mouth of the pit for pits of increasing depth. This process is well predicted by FEA, as the strain contour maps show that strain is the highest around the centric strip of the pit. However, for shallow pits, local strain is uniformly distributed around that strip but begins to concentrate more towards the shoulder and the mouth region for increasingly deep pits.  相似文献   
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