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1.
Due to the demand of miniaturization and integration for ceramic capacitors in electronic components market, TiO2-based ceramics with colossal permittivity has become a research hotspot in recent years. In this work, we report that Ag+/Nb5+ co-doped (Ag1/4Nb3/4)xTi1−xO2 (ANTOx) ceramics with colossal permittivity over a wide frequency and temperature range were successfully prepared by a traditional solid–state method. Notably, compositions of ANTO0.005 and ANTO0.01 respectively exhibit both low dielectric loss (0.040 and 0.050 at 1 kHz), high dielectric permittivity (9.2 × 103 and 1.6 × 104 at 1 kHz), and good thermal stability, which satisfy the requirements for the temperature range of application of X9R and X8R ceramic capacitors, respectively. The origin of the dielectric behavior was attributed to five dielectric relaxation phenomena, i.e., localized carriers' hopping, electron–pinned defect–dipoles, interfacial polarization, and oxygen vacancies ionization and diffusion, as suggested by dielectric temperature spectra and valence state analysis via XPS; wherein, electron-pinned defect–dipoles and internal barrier layer capacitance are believed to be the main causes for the giant dielectric permittivity in ANTOx ceramics.  相似文献   
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直通链路技术己广泛应用于车联网场景。对于直通链路技术的潜在技术方向给出可行的建议,包括传统直通链路技术的增强方向,如载波聚合、使用非授权频谱等;侧行链路对于中继场景的应用扩展,包括终端到终端之间的中继,以及中继的多链接场景;在高精度定位场景使用直通链路技术。并且,给出直通链路技术与各种新技术的融合应用,如智能反射面与区块链技术,从而解决直通链路技术自身的缺陷。  相似文献   
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纤维素和几丁质具有相似的结构,是自然界中储量丰富的两类天然多糖。经2, 2, 6, 6-四甲基哌啶氮氧化物(TEMPO)氧化修饰制备的纤维素和几丁质纳米纤维,不仅具有多糖类物质的良好亲水性、生物可降解性、生物相容性及丰富的官能团(羟基、羧基、乙酰氨基和氨基等)所带来的特定化学性质,而且还具有纳米纤维的纳米尺寸效应、大比表面积、高表面活性、高结晶度和手性液晶相结构等特点,已成为生物质纳米材料领域的研究重点之一。本文对TEMPO氧化修饰制备天然多糖纳米纤维的方法及剥离机制进行了总结,同时重点综述了TEMPO氧化修饰的天然多糖纳米纤维在薄膜、凝胶、导电、医用、电磁屏蔽及环境等复合材料的增强和功能升级等方面的研究进展,强调了纤维素和几丁质纳米纤维的官能团及纳米尺寸在复合材料中的增效机制。最后,对天然多糖纳米纤维的发展方向及其在各领域应用的机遇与挑战进行了展望。  相似文献   
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Pathogens pose a serious challenge to environmental sanitation and a threat to public health.The frequent use of chemicals for sterilization in recent years has not only caused secondary damage to the environment but also increased pathogen resistance to drugs,which further threatens public health.To address this issue,the use of non-chemical antibacterial means has become a new trend for environmental disinfection.In this study,we developed red phosphorus nanoparticles(RPNPs),a safe and degradable photosensitive material with good photocatalytic and photothermal properties.The red phosphorus nanoparticles were prepared using a template method and ultrasonication.Under the irradiation of simulated sunlight for 20 min,the RPNPs exhibited an efficiency of 99.98%in killing Staphylococcus aureus due to their excellent photocatalytic and photothermal abilities.Transmission electron microscopy and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy revealed that the RPNPs exhibited degradability within eight weeks.Both the RPNPs and their degradation products were nontoxic to fibroblast cells.Therefore,such RPNPs are expected to be used as a new type of low-cost,efficient,degradable,biocompatible,and eco-friendly photosensitive material for environmental disinfection.  相似文献   
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Oxide-based near infrared (IR)-shielding coatings consisting of quarter‐wave stacks of oxygen-deficient tantalum oxide (Ta2O5?x) and silicon oxide (SiO2) multilayers and tin-doped indium oxide (In2O3) (ITO) films with the thicknesses of 200–600 nm can block the passage of IR-A (wavelength: 760–1400 nm) and IR-B (wavelength: 1400–3000 nm) radiation, respectively. In this study, the optical properties and microstructure of these oxide-based IR-shielding coatings were investigated. Transmission electron microscopy images indicated that amorphous Ta2O5?x/amorphous SiO2 multilayers were uniform and dense. ITO films were found to be highly crystalline and show carrier concentrations of up to 7.1 × 1020 cm?3, resulting in the strong IR-B optical absorption due to the plasma excitation of the free carriers. Oxide-based IR-shielding coatings with an ITO thickness of 420 nm were found to have near-IR shielding rates of >90% and an average visible light transmittance of >70%. The effects of IR on human keratinocytes were studied to evaluate the IR-induced photoaging in human skin. It was found that the downregulation of cellular proliferation and the enhancement of senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity induced by IR irradiation were significantly inhibited by oxide-based IR-shielding coatings. Thus, this study provides a facile method for the development of coatings for smart windows with high IR-shielding ability and high visible light transmittance.  相似文献   
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Given the continuing issues of environment and energy, methane dry reforming for syngas production have sparked interest among researchers, but struggled with the process immaturity owing to catalyst deactivation. This review summarizes the recent advances in the development of efficient and stable catalysts with strong resistance to coking and metal sintering, including the application of novel materials, the assessment of advanced characterizations and the compatibility to improved reaction system. One feasible option is the crystalline oxide catalysts (perovskite, pyrochlore, spinel and LDHs), which feature a fine metal dispersion and surface confinement effect via a metal exsolution strategy and exhibit superior reactivity and stability. Some new materials (h-BN, clays and MOFs) also extend the option because of their unique morphology and microstructure. It also is elaborated that progresses were achieved in advanced characterizations application, leading to success in the establishment of reaction mechanisms and attributions to the formed robust catalysts. In addition, the perspective described the upgrade of reaction system to a higher reaction efficiency and milder reaction conditions. The combination of efficient reaction systems and robust catalysts paves a way for a scaling-up application of the process.  相似文献   
9.
Electric vehicles (EVs) are considered a promising alternative to conventional vehicles (CVs) to alleviate the oil crisis and reduce urban air pollution and carbon emissions. Consumers usually focus on the tangible cost when choosing an EV or CV but overlook the time cost for restricting purchase or driving and the environmental cost from gas emissions, falling to have a comprehensive understanding of the economic competitiveness of CVs and EVs. In this study, a life cycle cost model for vehicles is conducted to express traffic and environmental policies in monetary terms, which are called intangible cost and external cost, respectively. Battery electric vehicles (BEVs), fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs), and CVs are compared in four first-tier, four new first-tier, and 4 s-tier and below cities in China. The comparison shows that BEVs and FCEVs in most cities are incomparable with CVs in terms of tangible cost. However, the prominent traffic and environmental policies in first-tier cities, especially in Beijing and Shanghai, greatly increase the intangible and external costs of CVs, making consumers more inclined to purchase BEVs and FCEVs. The main policy benefits of BEVs and FCEVs come from three aspects: government subsidies, purchase and driving restrictions, and environmental taxes. With the predictable reduction in government subsidies, traffic and environmental policies present important factors influencing the competitiveness of BEVs and FCEVs. In first-tier cities, BEVs and FCEVs already have a competitive foundation for large-scale promotion. In new first-tier and second-tier and below cities, stricter traffic and environmental policies need to be formulated to offset the negative impact of the reduction in government subsidies on the competitiveness of BEVs and FCEVs. Additionally, a sensitivity analysis reveals that increasing the mileage and reducing fuel prices can significantly improve the competitiveness of BEVs and FCEVs, respectively.  相似文献   
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An electrolyte Equation of State is presented by combining the Cubic Plus Association Equation of State,Mean Spherical Approximation and the Born equation.This new model uses experimental relative static permittivity,intend to predict well the activity coefficients of individual ions (ACI) and liquid densities of aqueous solutions.This new model is applied to model water + NaCl binary system and water + gas +NaCl ternary systems.The cation/anion-water interaction parameters of are obtained by fitting the exper-imental data of ACI,mean ionic activity coefficients (MIAC) and liquid densities of water + NaCl binary system.The cation/anion-gas interaction parameters are obtained by fitting the experimental data of gas solubilities in aqueous NaCl solutions.The modeling results show that this new model can correlate well with the phase equilibrium and volumetric properties.Without gas,predictions for ACI,MIAC,and liquid densities present relative average deviations of 1.3%,3.6% and 1.4% compared to experimental ref-erence values.For most gas-containing systems,predictions for gas solubilities present relative average deviations lower than 7.0%.Further,the contributions of ACI,and salting effects of NaCl on gases are ana-lyzed and discussed.  相似文献   
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