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1.
The β-Carotene (BC), an important precursor of vitamin A (VA), possesses antioxidant activity but is fat-soluble and has low bioavailability. In previous in-vitro assays evaluating antioxidant and 2,2′-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) free radical scavenging, both BC and VA showed a strong ability to scavenge radicals and protected cells from oxidative stress. Here, we used artificially simulated gastrointestinal digestion and Caco-2 cell absorption models to evaluate the bioavailability of the BC during gastrointestinal digestion and absorption using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. We observed high absorptive and transfer rates of BC and detected retinol metabolites (Vitamin A). Therefore, BC can be detected in the acidic gastrointestinal environment using HPLC. Optimised method provided better separation of BC and VA in the column, improving the accuracy of the test results.  相似文献   
2.
The sensitivity of a monitoring scheme depends on many factors including the variance of the charting statistic which is very important in the computation of the control limits. This paper discusses the computation of the variance of the recently proposed hybrid homogeneously weighted moving average (HHWMA) X¯ scheme which was based on an incorrect assumption. The correct variance is used to evaluate the run-length characteristics of the HHWMA X¯ scheme. It is observed that the incorrect variance has a significant impact on the sensitivity (or performance) of the HHWMA X¯ scheme.  相似文献   
3.
This review examines the application, limitations, and potential alternatives to the Hagberg–Perten falling number (FN) method used in the global wheat industry for detecting the risk of poor end-product quality mainly due to starch degradation by the enzyme α-amylase. By viscometry, the FN test indirectly detects the presence of α-amylase, the primary enzyme that digests starch. Elevated α-amylase results in low FN and damages wheat product quality resulting in cakes that fall, and sticky bread and noodles. Low FN can occur from preharvest sprouting (PHS) and late maturity α-amylase (LMA). Moist or rainy conditions before harvest cause PHS on the mother plant. Continuously cool or fluctuating temperatures during the grain filling stage cause LMA. Due to the expression of additional hydrolytic enzymes, PHS has a stronger negative impact than LMA. Wheat grain with low FN/high α-amylase results in serious losses for farmers, traders, millers, and bakers worldwide. Although blending of low FN grain with sound wheat may be used as a means of moving affected grain through the marketplace, care must be taken to avoid grain lots from falling below contract-specified FN. A large amount of sound wheat can be ruined if mixed with a small amount of sprouted wheat. The FN method is widely employed to detect α-amylase after harvest. However, it has several limitations, including sampling variability, high cost, labor intensiveness, the destructive nature of the test, and an inability to differentiate between LMA and PHS. Faster, cheaper, and more accurate alternatives could improve breeding for resistance to PHS and LMA and could preserve the value of wheat grain by avoiding inadvertent mixing of high- and low-FN grain by enabling testing at more stages of the value stream including at harvest, delivery, transport, storage, and milling. Alternatives to the FN method explored here include the Rapid Visco Analyzer, enzyme assays, immunoassays, near-infrared spectroscopy, and hyperspectral imaging.  相似文献   
4.
Journal of Materials Science - For transformers and inductors to meet the world’s growing demand for electrical power, more efficient soft magnetic materials with high saturation magnetic...  相似文献   
5.
In flash sintering experiments, the thermal history of the sample is key to understanding the mechanisms underlying densification rate and final properties. By combining robust temperature measurements with current-ramp-rate control, this study examined the effects of the thermal profile on the flash sintering of yttria-stabilized zirconia, with experiments ranging from a few seconds to several hours. The final density was maximized at slower heating rates, although processes slower than a certain threshold led to grain growth. The amount of grain growth observed was comparable to a similar conventional thermal process. The bulk electrical conductivity correlated with the maximum temperature and cooling rate. The only property that exhibited behavior that could not be attributed to solely the thermal profile was the grain boundary conductivity, which was consistently higher than conventional in flash sintered samples. These results suggest that, during flash sintering, athermal electric field effects are relegated to the grain boundary.  相似文献   
6.
Over the past decades, the number of patients with dry eye disease (DED) has increased dramatically. The incidence of DED is higher in Asia than in Europe and North America, suggesting the involvement of cultural or racial factors in DED etiology. Although many definitions of DED have been used, discrepancies exist between the various definitions of dry eye disease (DED) used across the globe. This article presents a clinical consensus on the definition of DED, as formulated in four meetings with global DED experts. The proposed new definition is as follows: “Dry eye is a multifactorial disease characterized by a persistently unstable and/or deficient tear film (TF) causing discomfort and/or visual impairment, accompanied by variable degrees of ocular surface epitheliopathy, inflammation and neurosensory abnormalities.” The key criteria for the diagnosis of DED are unstable TF, inflammation, ocular discomfort and visual impairment. This definition also recommends the assessment of ocular surface epitheliopathy and neurosensory abnormalities in each patient with suspected DED. It is easily applicable in clinical practice and should help practitioners diagnose DED consistently. This consensus definition of DED should also help to guide research and clinical trials that, to date, have been hampered by the lack of an established surrogate endpoint.  相似文献   
7.
Combined photochemical arylation, “nuisance effect” (SNAr) reaction sequences have been employed in the design of small arrays for immediate deployment in medium-throughput X-ray protein–ligand structure determination. Reactions were deliberately allowed to run “out of control” in terms of selectivity; for example the ortho-arylation of 2-phenylpyridine gave five products resulting from mono- and bisarylations combined with SNAr processes. As a result, a number of crystallographic hits against NUDT7, a key peroxisomal CoA ester hydrolase, have been identified.  相似文献   
8.
9.
In this study, the cellulose nanoparticles (CNP) isolated from potato peel were used for reinforcement of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-based active packaging film. The above film was used to pack the raw prawns (Penaeus monodon) at −20 °C, and the colour change, protein content, TVB-N, TMA and microbial analysis were done at regular interval for prawns stored in CNP-PVA active packaging film. A significant difference was observed in the quality of prawns stored in potato CNP-PVA film compared with prawns packed and stored in polyethylene film. The newly designed active packaging with CNP and fennel seed oil enhanced the shelf life of prawns up to two months for both HOSO (head on shell on) prawn and PD (peeled and deveined) prawn. Hence, the study recommends the potato peel CNP-PVA film with fennel seed oil as better choice to extend the shelf life of the prawns during storage compared with polyethylene packaging.  相似文献   
10.
Yogurt preserves and enhances nutritional value of milk. In this study, we have compared several strains to determine the physicochemical, sensory, rheological and aroma characteristics of different yogurts. We used Lactobacillus gasseri LGZ 1029 (LG), commercial probiotic L. rhamnosus (LGG) and traditional fermentation strains Streptococcus thermophilus and L. bulgaricus (SL). Results showed that the flavour and texture characteristics of mixed-strain yogurts were obviously better than in single-strain yogurts. Addition of LG increased pseudoplastic behaviour, as shown by Herschel–Bulkley model analysis of rheological behaviour. The LG + SL group also had both the highest viscosity consistency index and thickening ability. In addition, a total of 57 volatile compounds were detected in yogurts and the fermentation with the addition of LG was mainly affected by ketones. Our study suggested that a yogurt with new attributes can be produced by using LGZ 1029.  相似文献   
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