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1.
A stable film made from hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) on pyrolytic graphite (PG) electrode was employed for incorporating hemoglobin (Hb), myoglobin (Mb) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP), and the electrochemical characteristics of the proteins were studied correspondingly. Experimental results revealed that HEC film could greatly accelerate electron transfer between the proteins and electrode, and the proteins showed a thin layer electrochemical behavior in the film. Moreover, all the proteins in the film exhibited good catalytic activity towards the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the low H2O2 concentration range. In the high concentration range, H2O2 would exhibit toxicity effect on the proteins. The electrochemical properties and electrocatalytic abilities of the three heme proteins in HEC film have been compared, and the optimal conditions for H2O2 biosensor fabrication have been obtained.  相似文献   
2.
Ethyl carbamate (EC) is a potentially toxic compound that may be present at concentrations above maximum limits established in alcoholic beverages, such as cachaça. Most traditional alembic cachaça is produced on a small scale using empirical knowledge. The fermentation step is conducted using yeasts that are endogenous to the sugar cane, and the distillation process is relatively uncontrolled. In this study, gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry was used to determine the EC levels in distillate musts and fractions produced by spontaneous or selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. The aim was to verify the influence of selected strains as starters for fermentation compared with spontaneous fermentation on EC formation. The distillate fractions from these two production processes were also analysed. Our results demonstrated higher levels of EC (which surpass the limits defined by Brazilian law) in cachaças produced by spontaneous fermentation (50%) compared with the selected strains (30%); and the distillation step showed great contribution for the reduction of the compound. From must to distillate fractions we found an average decrease on EC levels of 62% using selected strains and 44% for the spontaneous fermentation. In addition, careful separation of the distillation fractions was crucial for producing high-quality and safe beverages.  相似文献   
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5.
Effects of ultrasonic treatment on emulsifying properties and structure of peanut protein isolate (PPI) were evaluated by analysis of particle size distribution, protein surface hydrophobicity, SDS-PAGE, circular dichroism spectra and environmental scanning electron microscopy. The emulsifying properties of the PPI were found to be improved by ultrasonic treatment. The mean particle size decreased from 474.7 nm to 255.8 nm while the molecular weight remained unaffected. The results of intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy and surface hydrophobicity indicated that ultrasonic treatment induced tertiary structural changes of the proteins in PPI. Emulsifying activity index and emulsion stability index were found to be correlated fairly well with surface hydrophobicity (H0) (r = 0.712 and r = 0.668, respectively).  相似文献   
6.
A chymosin digest of sodium caseinate, which showed antibacterial activity against Listeria innocua, was fractionated using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography and the purified antibacterial peptides were characterised by mass spectrometry, N-terminal amino acid sequencing and comparison to peptide masses of theoretical enzymic digests of milk proteins. Five antibacterial peptides, Cr1, Cr3, Cr4, Cr5 and Cr7 corresponding to amino acid residues 181–207, 180–207, 175–207, 164–207 and 172–207 of bovine αS2-casein, respectively, were isolated. The minimal inhibitory concentration of peptides Cr1, Cr4 and Cr5 was determined against a range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and showed similar activities to those of the bacteriocin peptide, nisin and the antibacterial peptide, lactoferricin B against certain Gram-positive bacteria. A partially purified chymosin digest of sodium caseinate (CrMIX) was prepared and observed to be heat stable for up to 15 min on exposure to 121 °C. Although CrMIX showed bactericidal activity against Salmonella Typhimurium in 0.1% (w/v) peptone medium, no antibacterial activity was observed when tested in skim milk at the same concentration.  相似文献   
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Carbon dioxide gas was evaluated in the laboratory for control of Sitophilus zeamais Motchulsky and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) in milled rice using a specially designed pressure chamber. Tests were conducted at atmospheric pressure with 60, 80 and 100% carbon dioxide and with 100% carbon dioxide pressurized to 4, 6 and 8 bars. LT99 were ≤79, ≤78, and ≤148 h for all life stages of S. zeamais exposed to 60, 80 and 100% carbon dioxide, whereas, they were ≤59, ≤51 and ≤66 h for T. castaneum. Pure carbon dioxide controlled the adult stage, but there tended to be no significant differences of carbon dioxide concentrations on mortality of immature stages. When pure carbon dioxide was pressurized, mortalities of the two insect species were increased significantly. LT99 values decreased with levels of applied pressure: ≤29, ≤9.0 and ≤4.8 h for S. zeamais and ≤15, ≤5.8 and ≤2.3 h for T. castaneum at pressures of 4, 6 and 8 bars, respectively. Sitophilus zeamais was more tolerant than T. castaneum to carbon dioxide gas. The adult was the most susceptible stage, however, immature stages responded differently to carbon dioxide gas applied at varying concentrations and pressure levels. Adult mortalities were lower when air was used in the pressure chamber instead of carbon dioxide. Pressurized carbon dioxide at relatively low pressure (4–8 bars) was found effective in controlling all live stages of S. zeamais and T. castaneum in milled rice with shorter exposure times than at atmospheric pressure using an inexpensive set of equipment as compared to high pressure carbon dioxide fumigation (20–30 bars).  相似文献   
8.
This study evaluates effect of tumbling time and cooking temperature on cooking rate, cooking loss (CL), colour, water activity and water‐holding capacity of cooked restructured ham rolls. In experiment were investigated three tumbling times (2, 4 and 6 h) at constant temperature (+4 °C) and three cooking temperatures (76, 86 and 96 °C). It was observed that CL decreased (P < 0.01) from 5.41% to 3.22% with tumbling time (2 h vs. 6 h) but increased (P < 0.01) from 2.35% to 7.25% along with cooking temperature (76 °C vs. 96 °C). In contrast, pH value increased (P < 0.01) from 6.18 to 6.24 with tumbling time (2 h vs. 6 h) but decreased (P < 0.01) from 6.22 to 6.17 along with cooking temperature (76 °C vs. 96 °C). In addition, high temperature had higher efficiency for thermal lethality than low temperature (F0 values were 19 and 92 min at 96 and 76 °C, respectively). Intermediate tumbling (4 h) and cooking (86 °C) could be preferential.  相似文献   
9.
脂质氧化和水解是形成腊肠特征风味的重要途径,但过度氧化会造成腊肠品质的劣变。桑椹多酚是一类天然抗氧化剂,被证实可以有效缓解腊肠储藏过程中的氧化反应,然而其通过调控腊肠脂质氧化和水解来改变腊肠风味的相关机制还鲜有研究报道。鉴于此,该研究将桑椹多酚提取物(1 g/kg)加入到肉糜中,制成广式腊肠,跟踪28 d的储藏过程中腊肠的脂质氧化代谢产物(共轭二烯、共轭三烯、TBARS和己醛)以及脂肪酸(中性脂肪酸、游离脂肪酸和磷脂)的组成变化。研究发现,桑椹多酚主要通过抑制脂质次级代谢产物(己醛和丙二醛)来延缓腊肠的脂质氧化。经过28 d的储藏期后,桑椹腊肠中己醛与丙二醛的含量较对照组分别下降63.10%与28.05%。此外,储藏过程中桑椹多酚还可以有效抑制腊肠储藏过程中游离脂肪酸、磷脂的释放。经过28 d的储藏期后,与对照组相比,桑椹腊肠的游离脂肪酸含量下降了9.59%。同时,桑椹多酚还可以减少风味物质中醛类物质的产生和积累。综上所述,桑椹多酚主要通过延缓腊肠储藏过程中脂质的降解及次级氧化过程来调控产品的风味。  相似文献   
10.
Gluten films obtained in acid conditions display some protein dispersion difficulties. Ultrasound treatment (UT) could represent an interesting strategy for improving gluten film appearance. Different UT exposure times were applied to film-forming dispersion. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of ultrasound treatment on gluten-based films at molecular and mesoscopic levels. Distribution in gliadin and glutenins was determined with SE-HPLC. The UT improved protein dispersion and final film appearance. Sonication did not lead to large changes in various gluten fractions, which suggests absence of important protein breakdown at the molecular level. Gluten showed high tolerance to UT. Surface properties of untreated and treated films were investigated by contact angle measurement: sonication promoted hydrophilic surface properties.Industrial relevanceBio-based packaging has been receiving increasing attention in view of its beneficial impact on the environment. Among proteins, gluten resulted as a very interesting film-forming material. Gluten films prepared in acid conditions showed problems in protein dispersion. Sonication represents a physical strategy which allowed us to obtain gluten-based films without the addition of chemical additives, such as sodium sulphite.  相似文献   
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