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1.
The evaluation of the volumetric accuracy of a machine tool is an open challenge in the industry, and a wide variety of technical solutions are available in the market and at research level. All solutions have advantages and disadvantages concerning which errors can be measured, the achievable uncertainty, the ease of implementation, possibility of machine integration and automation, the equipment cost and the machine occupation time, and it is not always straightforward which option to choose for each application. The need to ensure accuracy during the whole lifetime of the machine and the availability of monitoring systems developed following the Industry 4.0 trend are pushing the development of measurement systems that can be integrated in the machine to perform semi-automatic verification procedures that can be performed frequently by the machine user to monitor the condition of the machine. Calibrated artefact based calibration and verification solutions have an advantage in this field over laser based solutions in terms of cost and feasibility of machine integration, but they need to be optimized for each machine and customer requirements to achieve the required calibration uncertainty and minimize machine occupation time.This paper introduces a digital twin-based methodology to simulate all relevant effects in an artefact-based machine tool calibration procedure, from the machine itself with its expected error ranges, to the artefact geometry and uncertainty, artefact positions in the workspace, probe uncertainty, compensation model, etc. By parameterizing all relevant variables in the design of the calibration procedure, this simulation methodology can be used to analyse the effect of each design variable on the error mapping uncertainty, which is of great help in adapting the procedure to each specific machine and user requirements. The simulation methodology and the analysis possibilities are illustrated by applying it on a 3-axis milling machine tool.  相似文献   
2.
In this work, copper sulfide particles are synthesized with different Co doping concentrations such as 0, 1 and 5% at 80 °C by optimizing synthesis times from 1 to 3 h. Copper sulfide particles possess two structural phases of covellite CuS and digenite Cu9S5. The increase in synthesis time from 1 to 3 h increases the Cu9S5 phase growth and changes the morphology from flower to microsphere. The CuS synthesized with 0, 1 and 5% Co dopant concentrations demonstrate flower consisting of agglomerated nanosheets, microsphere and flower like microsphere. The elemental investigation substantiates Co ions presence in CuS microspheres. The A1g (LO) mode intensity is decreased with increase in Co dopant concentration confirming Co incorporation into CuS microsphere. The CuS synthesized with 0, 1, 5% Co dopants exhibit 322 mV, 305 mV and 289 mV to attain 100 mA/cm2 in 1 M KOH seawater. The CuS synthesized with 5% Co dopant demonstrates higher double layer capacitance (Cdl) of 173.9 mFcm?2 and lower charge transfer resistance (Rct) of 6.07 Ω with 78.84% retention after 10 h continuous stability than that of the other pristine (118.3 mFcm?2, 13.72 Ω) and 1% Co doped CuS microsphere (165.7 mFcm?2, 8.55 Ω) indicating more surface active site and rapid charge carrier transport, respectively.  相似文献   
3.
《Ceramics International》2022,48(11):15462-15469
Due to its unique artistic value, mosaic ceramics are widely used in construction-related fields. To meet the artist's demand for high-quality mosaic ceramic to create artistic works, it is necessary to meet the needs for efficient screening of mosaic ceramic tiles. Different from the ordinary large-target ceramics, mosaic ceramics exhibit characteristics of small tile sizes, a variety of colors, large demand for quantities, and easy reflection on the surface. Common manual detection methods show problems of low efficiency or accuracy, easy to fatigue, and many others. To solve these problems, this paper proposes a new detection method to identify surface defects of mosaic ceramic tiles and designs a detection system platform to achieve rapid detection. The experiment proves that the detection system has a detection rate of 93.99% for small defects on the surface of mosaic ceramic tiles, and the detection time of a single mosaic ceramic tile is less than 0.06 s. The detection method can quickly and accurately screen out high-quality, defect-free mosaic ceramic tiles, which can effectively improve the quality and artistic value of mosaic ceramic art creation.  相似文献   
4.
A new catalyst for both water reduction and oxidation, based on an infinite chain, {[Ni(tn)2]3 [Fe(CN)4 (μ-CN)2]2}n, is formed by the reaction of NiCl2, 1,3-propanediamine (tn) and K3 [Fe(CN)6]. {[Ni(tn)2]3 [Fe(CN)4 (μ-CN)2]2}n can electro-catalyze hydrogen evolution from a neutral aqueous buffer (pH 7.0) with a turnover frequency (TOF) of 1561 mol of hydrogen per mole of catalyst per hour (H2/mol catalyst/h) at an overpotential (OP) of 837 mV {[Ni(tn)2]3 [Fe(CN)4 (μ-CN)2]2}n also can electro-catalyze O2 production from water with a TOF of ~45 mol O2 (mol cat)?1s?1 at an OP of 591 mV. Under blue light (λ = 469 nm), together with CdS nanorods (CdS NRs) as a photosensitizer, and ascorbic acid (H2A) as a sacrificial electron donor, {[Ni(tn)2]3 [Fe(CN)4 (μ-CN)2]2}n can photo-catalyze hydrogen generation from an aqueous buffer (pH 4.0) with a turnover number (TON) of 11,450 mol H2 per mole of catalyst (mol of H2 (mol of cat)?1) during 10 h irradiation. The average of apparent quantum yield (AQY) is as high as 40.96% during 10 h irradiation. Studies indicate that {[Ni(tn)2]3 [Fe(CN)4 (μ-CN)2]2}n exists in two forms: a cyano-bridged chain ({[Ni(tn)2]3 [Fe(CN)4 (μ-CN)2]2}n) in solid, and a salt ([Ni(tn)2]3 [Fe(CN)6]2) in aqueous media; Catalytic reaction occurs on the nickel center of [Ni(tn)2]2+, and the introduction of [Fe(CN)6]3- can improve the catalytic efficiency of [Ni(tn)2]2+ for H2 or O2 generation. We hope these findings can afford a new method for the design of catalysts for both water reduction and oxidation.  相似文献   
5.
This paper focuses on the configuration design of flexure hinges with a prescribed compliance matrix and preset rotational center position. A new method for the topology optimization of flexure hinges is proposed based on the adaptive spring model and stress constraint. The hinge optimization model is formulated by maximizing the bending displacement with a spring while optimizing the compliance matrix to a prescribed value. To avoid numerical instability, an artificial spring is used as an auxiliary calculation, and a new strategy is developed for adaptively adjusting the spring stiffness according to the prescribed compliance matrix. The maximum stress of flexure hinge is limited by using a normalized P-norm of the effective von Mises stress, and a position constraint of rotational center is proposed to predetermine the position of the rotational center. In addition, to reduce the error of the stress measurement, a simple but effective filtering method is presented to obtain a complete black-and-white design. Numerical examples are used to verify the proposed method. Topology results show that the obtained flexure hinges have the prescribed compliance matrix and preset rotational center position while also meeting the stress requirements.  相似文献   
6.
7.
This paper describes the design and implementation of soft sensors to estimate cement fineness. Soft sensors are mathematical models that use available data to provide real-time information on process variables when the information, for whatever reason, is not available by direct measurement. In this application, soft sensors are used to provide information on process variable normally provided by off-line laboratory tests performed at large time intervals. Cement fineness is one of the crucial parameters that define the quality of produced cement. Providing real-time information on cement fineness using soft sensors can overcome limitations and problems that originate from a lack of information between two laboratory tests. The model inputs were selected from candidate process variables using an information theoretic approach. Models based on multi-layer perceptrons were developed, and their ability to estimate cement fineness of laboratory samples was analyzed. Models that had the best performance, and capacity to adopt changes in the cement grinding circuit were selected to implement soft sensors. Soft sensors were tested using data from a continuous cement production to demonstrate their use in real-time fineness estimation. Their performance was highly satisfactory, and the sensors proved to be capable of providing valuable information on cement grinding circuit performance. After successful off-line tests, soft sensors were implemented and installed in the control room of a cement factory. Results on the site confirm results obtained by tests conducted during soft sensor development.  相似文献   
8.
We report a simple processing method to simultaneously improve the efficiency and stability of organic solar cells (OSCs). Poly(4-styrene sulfonate)-doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy-thiophene (PEDOT:PSS), widely used as hole transport layer (HTL) in OSCs, tends to accelerate the degradation of devices because of its hygroscopic and acidic properties. In this regard, we have modified PEDOT:PSS to reduce its hygroscopic and acidic properties through a condensation reaction between PEDOT:PSS and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether (PEGME) in order to improve the efficiency and stability of OSCs. As a result, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) increased by 21%, from 2.57% up to 3.11%. A better energy level alignment by the reduced work function of the modified PEDOT:PSS with a highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) is considered the origin of the improved the efficiency. The half-life of OSCs with PEDOT:PSS modified with PEGME buffer layer also increased up to 3.5 times compared to that of devices with pristine PEDOT:PSS buffer layer.  相似文献   
9.
In this paper, the dynamic behaviors on the basis of simulation for high-purity heat integrated air separation column (HIASC) are studied. A nonlinear generic model control (GMC) scheme is proposed based on the nonlinear behavior analyses of a HIASC process, and an adaptive generic model control (AGMC) scheme is further presented to correct the model parameters online. Related internal model control (IMC) scheme and multi-loop PID (M-PID) scheme are also developed as the comparative base. The comparative researches are carried out among these linear and nonlinear control schemes in detail. The simulation research results show that the proposed AGMC schemes present advantages in both servo control and regulatory control for the high-purity HIASC.  相似文献   
10.
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