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1.
Efficient and sustainable Janus catalysts toward hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) are highly desirable for future hydrogen production via water electrolysis. Herein we report an active Janus electrocatalyst of amorphous-crystalline cobalt-molybdenum bimetallic phosphide heterostructured nanosheets on nickel foam (CoMoP/CoP/NF) for efficient electrolysis of alkaline water. As-reported CoMoP/CoP/NF consists of amorphous bimetal phosphide nanosheets doped with crystalline CoMoP/CoP heterostructured nanoparticles on NF. It can efficiently catalyze both HER (η = 127 mV@100 mA cm?2) and OER (η = 308 mV@100 mA cm?2) in alkaline electrolyte with long-term durability. Serving as anode and cathode of water electrolyzer, CoMoP/CoP/NF generates electrolytic current of 10, 50 and 100 mA cm?2 at low voltage of 1.50, 1.59, and 1.67 V, respectively.  相似文献   
2.
Electrocatalytic water splitting is an important method to produce green and renewable hydrogen (H2). One of the hindrances for wide applications of electrocatalysis in H2 production is the lack of freshwater resources. Comparatively, seawater splitting has become an effective approach for large-scale H2 production due to its abundant reserves. However, the increased complexity of seawater content emerged more problems in electrocatalytic seawater splitting. Recently, various strategies have been reported on improving the performance of electrocatalysts applied in seawater. Herein, this review firstly analyzed the mechanisms and challenges of electrocatalytic seawater splitting to evolve H2, and summarized the recent progress on H2 production in electrocatalytic seawater splitting. Furthermore, suggestions for future work have been provided for guidance.  相似文献   
3.
Development of efficient, low cost and multifunctional electrocatalysts for water splitting to harvest hydrogen fuels is a challenging task, but the combination of carbon materials with transition metal-based compounds is providing a unique and attractive strategy. Herein, composite systems based on cobalt ferrite oxide-reduced graphene oxide (Co2FeO4) @(rGO) using simultaneous hydrothermal and chemical reduction methods have been prepared. The proposed study eliminates one step associated with the conversion of GO into rGO as it uses direct GO during the synthesis of cobalt ferrite oxide, consequently rGO based hybrid system is achieved in-situ significantly, the optimized Co2FeO4@rGO composite has revealed an outstanding multifunctional applications related to both oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and hydrogen counterpart (HER). Various metal oxidation states and oxygen vacancies at the surface of Co2FeO4@rGO composites guided the multifunctional surface properties. The optimized Co2FeO4@rGO composite presents excellent multifunctional properties with onset potential of 0.60 V for ORR, an overpotential of 240 mV at a 20 mAcm?2 for OER and 320 mV at a 10 mAcm?2 for HER respectively. Results revealed that these multifunctional properties of the optimized Co2FeO4@ rGO composite are associated with high electrical conductivity, high density of active sites, crystal defects, oxygen vacancies, and favorable electronic structure arisinng from the substitution of Fe for Co atoms in binary spinel oxide phase. These surface features synergistically uplifted the electrocatalytic properties of Co2FeO4@rGO composites. The multifunctional properties of the Co2FeO4@ rGO composite could be of high interest for its use in a wide range of applications in sustainable and renewable energy fields.  相似文献   
4.
This work investigates selective Ni locations over Ni/CeZrOx–Al2O3 catalysts at different Ni loading contents and their influences on reaction pathways in ethanol steam reforming (ESR). Depending on the Ni loading contents, the added Ni selectively interacts with CeZrOx–Al2O3, resulting in the stepwise locations of Ni over CeZrOx–Al2O3. This behavior induces a remarkable difference in hydrogen production and coke formation in ESR. The selective interaction between Ni and CeZrOx for 10-wt.% Ni generates more oxygen vacancies in the CeZrOx lattice. The Ni sites near the oxygen vacancies enhance reforming via steam activation, resulting in the highest hydrogen production rate of 1863.0 μmol/gcat·min. In contrast, for 15 and 20-wt.% Ni, excessive Ni is additionally deposited on Al2O3 after the saturation of Ni–CeZrOx interactions. These Ni sites on Al2O3 accelerate coking from the ethylene produced on the acidic sites, resulting in a high coke amount of 19.1 mgc/gcat·h (20Ni/CZ-Al).  相似文献   
5.
The speed of the oxygen evolution reaction seriously affects the hydrogen production efficiency of water electrolysis. Hence it is crucial to develop efficient and durable OER electrocatalysts. Construction of heterojunction catalysts is also one of the strategies to develop efficient catalysts. In this paper, a pea-like Cu/Cu2S–C3 Mott?Schottky electrocatalyst was self-constructed by vapor deposition, while CF (copper foam) was used as substrate material and copper source, and thiourea was served as sulfur source. The built-in electric field is formed at the metal-semiconductor interface, which endows it with promising electrocatalytic performance. As the working electrode, the overpotentials of Cu/Cu2S–C3 required to reach the current density of 10 and 50 mA cm?2 were about 170 and 335 mV. The impact of the Mott-Schottky structure on the catalyst was also reflected in stability. The i-t tests of the sample Cu/Cu2S–C3 were carried out under 10 and 60 mA cm?2 and performed well.  相似文献   
6.
A new catalyst for both water reduction and oxidation, based on an infinite chain, {[Ni(tn)2]3 [Fe(CN)4 (μ-CN)2]2}n, is formed by the reaction of NiCl2, 1,3-propanediamine (tn) and K3 [Fe(CN)6]. {[Ni(tn)2]3 [Fe(CN)4 (μ-CN)2]2}n can electro-catalyze hydrogen evolution from a neutral aqueous buffer (pH 7.0) with a turnover frequency (TOF) of 1561 mol of hydrogen per mole of catalyst per hour (H2/mol catalyst/h) at an overpotential (OP) of 837 mV {[Ni(tn)2]3 [Fe(CN)4 (μ-CN)2]2}n also can electro-catalyze O2 production from water with a TOF of ~45 mol O2 (mol cat)?1s?1 at an OP of 591 mV. Under blue light (λ = 469 nm), together with CdS nanorods (CdS NRs) as a photosensitizer, and ascorbic acid (H2A) as a sacrificial electron donor, {[Ni(tn)2]3 [Fe(CN)4 (μ-CN)2]2}n can photo-catalyze hydrogen generation from an aqueous buffer (pH 4.0) with a turnover number (TON) of 11,450 mol H2 per mole of catalyst (mol of H2 (mol of cat)?1) during 10 h irradiation. The average of apparent quantum yield (AQY) is as high as 40.96% during 10 h irradiation. Studies indicate that {[Ni(tn)2]3 [Fe(CN)4 (μ-CN)2]2}n exists in two forms: a cyano-bridged chain ({[Ni(tn)2]3 [Fe(CN)4 (μ-CN)2]2}n) in solid, and a salt ([Ni(tn)2]3 [Fe(CN)6]2) in aqueous media; Catalytic reaction occurs on the nickel center of [Ni(tn)2]2+, and the introduction of [Fe(CN)6]3- can improve the catalytic efficiency of [Ni(tn)2]2+ for H2 or O2 generation. We hope these findings can afford a new method for the design of catalysts for both water reduction and oxidation.  相似文献   
7.
The development of efficient and stable oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalysts is an ongoing challenge. In order to solve the problem of low oxygen evolution efficiency of the current OER catalysts, a novel material was synthesized by the incorporation of NiFeCr-LDH and MoS2, and its structural and electrochemical properties were also investigated. The introduction of MoS2 improves the electrochemical performance of NiFeCr-LDH. The polarization curve shows that the potential of composite material is only 1.50 V at a current density of 10 mA cm?2, which is far superior to commercial precious metal catalysts. In addition, the stability experiment shows that the composite material has excellent stability, and the current density has little change after 500 cycles. Furthermore, we found that some metal ions, such as Ni, Cr and Mo, exist in the form of high valence on the surface of NiFeCr-LDH@MoS2, which is also conducive to the occurrence of oxygen evolution reaction.  相似文献   
8.
The construction of heterostructure is an effective strategy to synergetically couple wide-band-gap with the narrow-band-gap semiconductor with a mediate optical property and charge transfer capability. Herein, the Z-Scheme CdS/ZnSnO3 (CdS/ZSO) heterostructures were constructed by anchoring CdS nanoparticles on the surface of double-shell hollow cubic ZnSnO3 via the hydrothermal method. The direct recombination of excited electrons in the conduction band (CB) of ZSO and holes in the valence band (VB) of CdS via d-p conjugation at the interface greatly accelerated the internal electric field (IEF). The transfer mode follows the Z-Scheme mechanism, where CdS/ZSO synergistically facilitates the efficient charges transfer from CdS to ZnSnO3 through the intimate interface. Here, ZnSnO3 and CdS serve as an oxidation photocatalyst (OP) and reduction photocatalyst (RP), respectively. Thus, it can promote synergistically the oxidation half-reaction and reduction half-reaction of H2 evolution. The density-functional theory (DFT) calculation further confirms the charges transfer from CdS to ZnSnO3. The hydrogen evolution of 5% CdS/ZSO heterostructure reached 1167.3 μmol g?1, which was about 8 and 3 folds high compared to pristine ZSO (141.9 μmol g?1) and CdS (315.5 μmol g?1), during 3 h of reaction respectively. Furthermore, the CdS/ZSO heterostructures could suppress the photo corrosion of CdS, resulting in its high stability. This work is expected to enlighten the rational design of heterostructure for OP and RP to promote the hybrid heterostructures photocatalytic H2 evolution.  相似文献   
9.

LiFe2/3Mn1/3PO4/C composite was prepared by the rheological phase reaction using LiH2PO4, Li2CO3, FePO4, Mn(Ac)2·4H2O and ascorbic acid as starting materials. The crystal structure and morphology of as-synthesized sample were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The analysis of XRD results showed that the obtained sample was single-phase with orthorhombic olivine-type structure (Pnma space group). SEM micrographs revealed that the sample was aggregates, with an irregular morphology. The initial discharge capacity was 166.9, 149.1, 139.6, 112.8, 82.93 mAh g??1 at the rate of 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2, and 10 C, respectively. And when the rate was 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2, and 10 C, the capacity retention was 92.2%, 90%, 92.9%, 97.6%, 91.5% after 50, 100, 200, 200, 500 cycles, respectively.

  相似文献   
10.
《Ceramics International》2022,48(11):15043-15055
This work reports magnetic permeability and ammonia gas sensing characteristics of La3+ substituted Co–Zn nano ferrites possessing chemical formula Co0.7Zn0.3LaxFe2-2xO4 (x = 0–0.1) synthesized by a sol-gel route. Refinement of X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the ferrite powders by the Rietveld technique has revealed the creation of single-phase spinel structure. The tenancy of constituent cations at tetrahedral/octahedral sites was obtained from the refinement of XRD. The crystallite sizes calculated from the W–H method vary from 20 to 24 nm. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) profiles of the ferrite samples were analyzed for the morphological details. The energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) patterns of the samples were obtained to test the elemental purity of the ferrites within their stoichiometry. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) image of the ferrite (x = 0.1) exhibits the spherical and oval shaped particles with a mean size of 20 nm. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectra were analyzed to confirm the superseding of La3+ cations at octahedral sites. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis of nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms of the ferrites was performed to investigate the porous structure and to determine the surface area of the nanocrystalline ferrites. The oxidation states of the constituent ions were confirmed by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The complex permeability as a function of frequency was studied to explore the effects of structural parameters on the magnetic behaviour of the ferrites. Analysis of gas sensing properties of the ferrites have proved that the Co–Zn–La ferrite with controlled La composition can be utilized as an effective ammonia gas sensing material in commercial gas sensors.  相似文献   
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