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1.
《Journal of dairy science》2022,105(2):1768-1787
Newborn calves rely on lipids in colostrum for energy and immune function. The lipid concentration in colostrum, however, is highly variable, and little is known about its composition and maternal factors that influence its composition. The first objective was to measure plasma lipid composition of multiparous cows at 35 d before calving (BC; 35 ± 3 d; ± standard deviation) and 7 d BC (7 ± 2 d), their colostrum, and serum lipid composition of calves (24 h after birth) using multiple reaction monitoring profiling, which is an exploratory and highly sensitive lipidomic analysis method that screens lipids based on chemical functionality. Second, data were analyzed to determine if there were relationships between circulating lipids in the cow, colostrum lipids, and calf serum lipids. Third, relationships between markers of metabolic status of the cows and circulating and colostrum lipids were analyzed with correlation analysis. Blood was sampled and plasma prepared from multiparous cows (n = 16) at 35 and 7 d BC. Within 3 h of parturition, colostrum was collected from cows and fed to her calf. Calves received another feeding of colostrum within 12 h after birth and a serum sample was collected from each calf 24 h after the first feeding of colostrum. The metabolic status of cows was evaluated using insulin, glucose, and nonesterified fatty acid area under the curve in response to an intravenous glucose tolerance test performed at 3 wk BC. Lipids were extracted from plasma, colostrum, and calf serum and were analyzed using multiple reaction monitoring profiling. Concentration of lipids were calculated using spiked in standards and expressed as percent of lipids identified. Data were uploaded into MetaboAnalyst 5.0 for multivariate and univariate analysis. Principal component analysis indicated that circulating lipids in the cow and calf were distinct from lipids in colostrum. Phosphatidylglycerol (PG) concentration was greater in colostrum and calf serum than in cow plasma, with 23 of the 24 PG found in colostrum also found in calf serum. In response to intravenous glucose tolerance test in late gestation, nonesterified fatty acid area under the curve was positively related to total triacylglycerols lipids in 7 d BC plasma (r = 0.63) but negatively related to total membrane lipids in colostrum (r = ?0.55). Thus, the metabolic status of the dam influences circulating lipids and colostrum lipid content. Moreover, the circulating lipidome of the cow and calf are similar to one another and distinct from the colostrum lipidome, except for PG, where it appears that colostrum serves as the source for PG in the calf's circulation.  相似文献   
2.
Abstract

Recently, a literature has emerged using empirical techniques to study the evolution of international cities over many centuries; however, few studies examine long-run change within cities. Conventional models and concepts are not always appropriate and data issues make long-run neighbourhood analysis particularly problematic. This paper addresses some of these points. First, it discusses why the analysis of long-run urban change is important for modern urban policy and considers the most important concepts. Second, it constructs a novel data set at the micro level, which allows consistent comparisons of London neighbourhoods in 1881 and 2001. Third, the paper models some of the key factors that affected long-run change, including the role of housing. There is evidence that the relative social positions of local urban areas persist over time but, nevertheless, at fine spatial scales, local areas still exhibit change, arising from aggregate population dynamics, from advances in technology, and also from the effects of shocks, such as wars. In general, where small areas are considered, long-run changes are likely to be greater, because individuals are more mobile over short than long distances. Finally, the paper considers the implications for policy.  相似文献   
3.
Excessive energy intake may evoke complex biochemical processes characterized by inflammation, oxidative stress, and impairment of mitochondrial function that represent the main factors underlying noncommunicable diseases. Because cow milk is widely used for human nutrition and in food industry processing, the nutritional quality of milk is of special interest with respect to human health. In our study, we analyzed milk produced by dairy cows fed a diet characterized by a high forage:concentrate ratio (high forage milk, HFM). In view of the low n-6:n-3 ratio and high content of conjugated linoleic acid of HFM, we studied the effects of this milk on lipid metabolism, inflammation, mitochondrial function, and oxidative stress in a rat model. To this end, we supplemented for 4 wk the diet of male Wistar rats with HFM and with an isocaloric amount (82 kJ, 22 mL/d) of milk obtained from cows fed a diet with low forage:concentrate ratio, and analyzed the metabolic parameters of the animals. Our results indicate that HFM may positively affect lipid metabolism, leptin:adiponectin ratio, inflammation, mitochondrial function, and oxidative stress, providing the first evidence of the beneficial effects of HFM on rat metabolism.  相似文献   
4.
自2002年起,我国开始出现电视民生新闻,并得到观众的广泛喜爱,但在整个发展过程当中电视新闻存在一些问题有待解决,探讨电视民生新闻的现状及发展趋势,对其中存在的问题提出解决方案。  相似文献   
5.
介绍国内外聚乙烯管材料的开发和生产情况,以及聚乙烯管材树脂的主要生产厂家。  相似文献   
6.
江澄 《山西建筑》2006,32(4):42-43
从政策、城市与区域规划、环境、文化及其传承因素、基础设施等方面探析了高校新校区选址有关的主要影响因素,以满足高等学校大规模的扩建要求,促进高等教育的发展。  相似文献   
7.
程今朝 《西北水电》2006,(4):101-103
简述了英、美等国图书在版编目的发展和中国实施在版编目的意义、作用及特点,对中国实施图书在版编目提出了设想和建议。  相似文献   
8.
乌江洪家渡水电站坝址河谷深切300余m,硬质岩与软质岩相间分布,岸坡地形陡峻,软弱夹层发育,卸荷、崩塌等物理地质作用强烈。根据坝址地质条件与电站枢纽布置,工程存在:隧洞群进水口同向高边坡整体稳定问题;坝肩开挖、隧洞进出口开挖、厂房开挖及料场开挖等高边坡稳定问题;泄洪冲刷及雾化区1号、2号塌滑体高边坡稳定问题;王家渡堆料场、瓦房寨砂石系统高边坡稳定问题。因此,工程高边坡稳定问题是本工程的主要工程问题之一,但通过参建各方共同努力,本工程高边坡处理都取得了圆满成功。  相似文献   
9.
关于我国石油钻机技术的现状及其研发思考   总被引:13,自引:6,他引:7  
王进全 《石油机械》2006,34(1):7-10
介绍了我国石油钻机的技术现状,在肯定我国石油钻机发展所取得成绩的同时,指出我国石油钻机整体技术与国外钻机技术的差距,提出要把石油钻机作为国家战略装备来对待,加快我国石油钻机新技术、新产品研发工作,以满足我国石油工业发展的需要。  相似文献   
10.
试论降低成本的设计技术   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
滕启 《石油机械》2002,30(5):50-52
一个新产品的功能和成本水平基本上已在产品设计阶段就确定了。研究降低成本的设计技术就是为了给设计师提供一套行之有效的降低和优化成本的辅助设计工具。降低成本设计的技术内涵是与设计过程并行的成本估算、知识基系统的建立和质量及成本的综合优化。论述了各国对此项技术研究应用的状况、技术分析、发展特点和研究前沿的项目及内容 ,如对此技术研究应用的迫切性、对降低成本的最佳时机和产品的全成本概念等的探讨和认识 ;对成本扩展到产品寿命全周期、对目标成本控制法和成本优化设计等的研究和应用。  相似文献   
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