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2.
分别采用共沉淀法、清洁法制备焙烧态水铝钙石,通过低温N2吸脱附法、CO2-TPD、XRD、DTA和FT-IR表征结构,并将其作为大豆油与甲醇酯交换合成生物柴油的催化剂,探讨制备方法对焙烧态水铝钙石催化合成生物柴油的影响。此外,考察了Ca/Al摩尔比、焙烧温度、甲醇与大豆油摩尔比(醇油比)、催化剂用量和反应时间对酯交换合成生物柴油的影响。结果表明,清洁法制备的焙烧态水铝钙石具有更高的比表面积,强碱中心的表面碱量更大,催化活性更高。当Ca/Al摩尔比为2∶1,焙烧温度为600℃时,制备的Ca2Al O-2-600催化剂的催化活性最高,在醇油比8∶1、催化剂用量3%、反应温度65℃、反应时间4 h的条件下,大豆油转化率达到98. 0%。催化剂经重复使用3次后仍保持较高催化活性。  相似文献   
3.
Diesel is the main source of world transportation due to higher combustion efficiency, compliance, consistency and cost-economy. It is also a major contributor to the world prosperity since it is used extensively. Diesel engine’s emissions are the serious hazard to the world environment and it is measured to be the major causes of air pollution. The demand in biofuels for years created a scope for aloe vera into biodiesels. Aloe vera, having higher calorific value vnthan other plant sources used as biodiesels, enhanced us in making another alternative biodiesel, which has lesser emissions and better performance. In this research work, four biodiesel blends from aloe vera oil with cerium oxide additive are explored for their performance and emission characteristics. The results proved B30 (30% biodiesel, 68% diesel and 1% cerium oxide) gives good performance when compared to other blends.  相似文献   
4.
In the wake of increasing environmental constraints, this work is aimed at developing a catalyst purely prepared from waste biomass source as the raw material. The catalyst is investigated for its applicability in transesterification of vegetable oil with the objectives: (i) to use waste shells of mollusk as raw material for the preparation of activated carbon and CaO; (ii) to use it as heterogeneous catalyst in the transesterification of waste cooking oil; (iii) to optimize the different parameters affecting the transesterification reaction; and (iv) to study its reusability. Under optimized conditions it was observed that a conversion >90% was possible and the catalyst could be reused five times with a slight loss in activity. This study indicates that the biomass source could also be used as a potential raw material in the synthesis of environmentally benign catalysts.  相似文献   
5.
In the present study, biodiesel production from the crude cotton-seed oil (CSO) and its feasibility to be used as fuel in compression ignition engine was analysed. Single-stage transesterification at molar ratio of 8:1 on crude CSO yielded 94% of cottonseed biodiesel (CBD). Gas chromatogram/mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of 19.5% unsaturated and 80.5% saturated esters in cotton seed biodiesel. Taguchi approach identified the stable fuel blend with oxygenate concentration. Increased oxygen concentration up to 20% were also analysed to understand the variation. Higher peak in-cylinder pressure was observed in D80CBD20 fuel blend. Diesel–biodiesel blend with oxygenate significantly affected the ignition delay and also resulted in varied exhaust gas temperature. D80CBD20nB10 showed an increase in brake thermal efficiency, whereas D80CBD20 exhibited higher brake specific energy consumption at full load. Carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon and smoke emission was found to be high in diesel with higher oxides of nitrogen in D80CBD20nB10. This experimental investigation finally revealed that, D80CBD20nB10 improved the combustion and performance characteristics with minimal emissions.

Abbreviations ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials; BP: brake power; BSEC: brake specific energy consumption; BTE: brake thermal efficiency; CBD: cottonseed biodiesel; CI: compression ignition; CO: carbon monoxide; CO2: carbon dioxide; CSO: cottonseed oil; DEE: diethyl ether; DOE: design of experiments; EGT: exhaust gas temperature; FTIR: Fourier transform infrared spectrometry; GC/MS: gas chromatogram/mass spectrometry; HC: hydrocarbon; HRR: heat release rate; HSDI: high speed direct injection; IDI: indirect injection; KOH: potassium hydroxide; MFB: mass fraction burned; NaOH: sodium hydroxide; NMR: nuclear magnetic resonance; N2O: nitrous oxide; NO: nitric oxide; NO2: nitrogen dioxide; NO x : oxides of nitrogen; ROHR: rate of heat release; ROPR: rate of pressure rise; SOC: start of combustion; aTDC: after top dead centre; bTDC: before top dead centre  相似文献   

6.
Fuel quality, especially biodiesel, is highly dependent on its water content, and the major sources of water in the fuel relate to the transportation, production, and storage processes. In this present contribution, the multilayer perceptron artificial neural network (MLP-ANN) was applied to predict the water content of biodiesel and diesel blend in terms of temperature and composition. The proposed algorithm was trained and tested by utilizing 400 experimental data points which were extracted from the literature. Based on the results, the MLP-ANN model has great ability to estimate the water content of biodiesel and diesel blend. The R-squared (R2), root mean square error, average absolute relative deviation, and a?bsolute deviation parameters for the total data set are obtained, respectively, as 0.99784, 123919.1172, 3.3632, and 1.17%, which indicate the effective performance suggested by ANN. As the computational study is cheaper and easier than the experimental study, the developed software could be considered as an alternative for laboratory study, and the environmental effect of biodiesel and produced undesired product after biodiesel combustion which is directly related to the water content of biodiesel is estimable with the information released in this study.  相似文献   
7.
王碧灿 《中国油脂》2020,45(10):77-83
为了掌握入射压力对生物质燃油在旋流喷嘴中雾化特性的影响规律,在不同入射压力条件下,采用Fluent数值模拟的方法对小桐子油和小桐子生物柴油进行雾化过程模拟仿真研究。结果表明:使用的旋流雾化喷嘴比普通喷嘴对索特平均直径(D32)有更好的优化效果,内螺旋结构增强了雾化的湍流强度,使得气液两相混合及对雾化液滴的破碎效果更好;在等温条件下,不同入射压力对D32、雾化总表面积、雾化速度、雾化贯穿距影响较大。入射压力越大,D32越小;入射压力越大,雾化总表面积、雾化速度、雾化贯穿距越大。入射压力对D32的影响存在临界值,即小桐子油雾化入射压力达到0.8 MPa、小桐子生物柴油雾化入射压力达到0.7 MPa后,D32趋于稳定,不会随入射压力的增大继续减小;通过曲线拟合及雾滴粒径数量密度分析,得到了不同入射压力距离喷嘴不同位置处轴向D32变化的拟合方程及雾化液滴不同粒径数量密度分布情况。  相似文献   
8.
The gradual depletion of fossil fuels has greatly enhanced the necessity to look for alternative fuels for automobile engines. In response to this, biodiesel is being considered as a promising and potential alternative substitute to conventional petroleum diesel. However, long-term storage stability of biodiesel is poorer compared to conventional petroleum diesel. The aim of the project work is to study the long-term storage stability of biodiesel (B100) and its blend (B20) prepared from used frying oil in different conditions of storage. In this work, the effect of antioxidants and temperature on long storage stability of biodiesel obtained from with respect to storage period is analysed using response surface methodology (RSM). The long storage of biodiesel obtained from used frying oils were optimised by varying parameters such as antioxidant concentration, storage period by Box-Behnken RSM. The properties such as the acid value and the viscosity of biodiesel were initially measured. The results of the investigation showed that the addition of sufficient concentration of antioxidant (pyrogallol) significantly maintains the acid value and viscosity of biodiesel and helps to store for a longer storage period at the given storage temperature.  相似文献   
9.
张昕怡  许蕊  王钰棋  张瑜  王飞  李迅 《化工学报》2020,71(11):5246-5255
将来源于解脂嗜热互营杆菌(Thermosyntropha lipolytica)的脂肪酶(TlLipA)基因tll1导入大肠杆菌BL21(DE3)中表达,通过热处理和镍柱亲和层析获得纯酶,并对其酶学性质进行研究。十二烷基硫酸钠-聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(SDS-PAGE)显示TlLipA分子量为53×103,其最适反应温度为65℃,最适反应pH为8.0。在55~65℃范围内酶活较高且比较稳定;在pH7.0~11.0于室温保存1 h后,残留相对酶活仍达80%以上。1 mmol/L 金属离子Zn2+、Fe3+和试剂SDS,0.05%(质量分数)Tween 80,对酶活力具有强烈的抑制作用,残留相对酶活皆低于15%;1 mmol/L Mg2+、Mn2+对酶活力表现出轻微的激活作用。由底物专一性实验可得,该酶对辛酸对硝基苯酯(C8)和癸酸对硝基苯酯(C10)偏好明显。以棕榈酸对硝基苯酯(p-NPP)为底物,该酶动力学参数Km值为0.23 mmol/L,Vmax为33.50 mmol/(L·min),kcat为22.83 S-1。以重组脂肪酶为催化剂在无溶剂体系中制备生物柴油,含水率20%,酶加量200 U/g油,醇油比为4∶1的条件下,在55℃催化大豆油反应48 h,收率可达91.75%。  相似文献   
10.
In the current investigation, the enrichment of hydrogen with the honge biodiesel blend and diesel is used in a compression ignition engine. The biodiesel is derived from the honge oil and mixed with diesel fuel by 20% (v/v). Thereafter, hydrogen at different volume flow rates (10 and 13 lpm) is introduced into the intake manifold. The outcomes by enrichment of hydrogen on the performance, combustion and emission characteristics are investigated by examining the brake thermal efficiency, fuel consumption, HC, CO, CO2, NOₓ emissions, in-cylinder pressure, combustion duration, and rate of heat release. The engine fuelled with honge biodiesel blend is found to enhance the thermal efficiency, combustion characteristics. Compare to diesel, the BTE increased by 2.2% and 6% less fuel consumption for the HB20 + 13H2 blend. Further, reduction in the emission of exhausts gases like CO and HC by 21% and 24%, respectively, are obtained. This is due to carbon-free structure in hydrogen. Moreover, due to high pressure in the cylinder, there is a slight increase in oxides of nitrogen emission compare to diesel. The combustion characteristics such as rate of heat release, combustion duration, and maximum 2rate of pressure rise and in-cylinder pressure are high due to hydrogen.  相似文献   
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