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1.
Food additives, often used to guarantee the texture, shelf-life, taste, and appearance of processed foods, have gained widespread attention due to their increased link to the growing incidence of chronic diseases. As one of the most common additives, carrageenans have been used in human diets for hundreds of years. While classified as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for human consumption, numerous studies since the 1980s have suggested that carrageenans, particularly those with random coil conformations, may have adverse effects on gastrointestinal health, including aggravating intestinal inflammation. While these studies have provided some evidence of adverse effects, the topic is still controversial. Some have suggested that the negative consequence of the consumption of carrageenans may be structure dependent. Furthermore, pre-existing conditions may predispose individuals to varied outcomes of carrageenan intake. In this review, structure–function relationships of various carrageenans in the context of food safety are discussed. We reviewed the molecular mechanisms by which carrageenans exert their biological effects. We summarized the findings associated with carrageenan intake in animal models and clinical trials. Moreover, we examined the interactions between carrageenans and the gut microbiome in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal disorders. This review argues for personalized guidance on carrageenan intake based on individuals’ health status. Future research efforts that aim to close the knowledge gap on the effect of low-dose and chronic carrageenan intake as well as interactions among food additives should be conducive to the improved safety profile of carrageenans in processed food products.  相似文献   
2.
探讨不同糖类对冻藏温度波动下冷冻虾仁的抗冻保水作用。以南美白对虾为对象,以焦磷酸钠和蒸馏水分别为阳性和阴性对照,在-55℃与-24℃冻藏温度波动条件下,分析低聚木糖、卡拉胶寡糖、海藻糖和海藻胶寡糖对虾仁肌肉品质特性的影响。结果表明,在温度波动条件下冻藏144 d过程中,相比于蒸馏水处理组,低聚木糖、卡拉胶寡糖、海藻糖和海藻胶寡糖显著降低了冷冻虾仁的解冻损失率,其中最低的为卡拉胶寡糖组(8.58%)。且糖处理组有效维持了虾仁肌肉组织的质构特性,弹性和咀嚼性最佳分别为1.42 mm和6.80 mJ。同时,几种糖类物质减缓了重结晶虾仁的肌原纤维蛋白含量(106.10 mg/g~111.67 mg/g)、Ca~(2+)-ATPase活性(0.124 U/mg~0.136 U/mg)和总巯基含量(7.6 mmol/L~8.1 mmol/L)的下降速率。微观结构观察发现,相比于蒸馏水组,糖类处理后的虾仁肌肉结缔组织结构较为完整,肌束间空隙较小,且并未发生大面积扭曲、断裂现象,其对冻藏虾仁组织结构具有较好的维持作用。由上,低聚木糖、卡拉胶寡糖、海藻糖和海藻胶寡糖可作为冷冻虾仁的抗冻保水剂加以开发与利用。  相似文献   
3.
The effects of κ‐carrageenan and its hydrolysates on modification of the freezing process and also on inhibition of excessive recrystallisation of ice in sucrose solutions during storage were compared. Acid hydrolysis of κ‐carrageenan was carried out using sulphuric (H2SO4) and hydrochloric acid (HCl). Most effective in the hydrolysis process turned out to be H2SO4, which degraded κ‐carrageenan to a molecular mass of around 3 × 106 Da, after 1.5 h of hydrolysis. Addition of 0.005% of the new poligeenan (degraded carrageenan), to a sucrose solution (30%), frozen at ?20 °C, caused a nearly 50% reduction in the phase‐change stages, and consequently, the total time of freezing was shorter. Significant retardation of recrystallisation was observed for both types of poligeenan, but a stronger effect was observed for the oligosaccharides obtained after HCl hydrolysis, and after 96 h of storage at ?8 °C, the equivalent diameter of ice crystals was not greater than 11 μm.  相似文献   
4.
Ultrasound has been used for cold gelation of κ‐carrageenan hydrocolloid. In this work, the effect of ultrasound conditions such as power (50–150 W) and time (20–240 s) of sonication has been investigated. The application of ultrasound to hydrocolloid dispersion caused an increase in water solubility. The texture profile analysis test was used in order to evaluate the mechanical properties of gels. Textural parameters of κ‐carrageenan gels, enhanced with increasing sonication time and power up to a certain level (usually 2.5 min) and longer sonication times had negative effects. In addition, intrinsic viscosities of sonicated specimens were measured to investigate the molecular characteristics of all samples. An increase in the process time and power reduced the intrinsic viscosity. The microstructural observation by scanning electron microscope determined that applying power ultrasound on κ‐carrageenan dispersions influenced the formation of gel networks significantly.  相似文献   
5.
The effect of carrageenan (κ‐carrageenan, ι‐carrageenan, and λ‐carrageenan) on the physiochemical and functional properties of low‐fat Colby cheese during ripening was investigated. Protein, fat, and moisture contents; the soluble fractions of the total nitrogen at pH 4.6; protein and fat recovery; and the actual yield and dry matter yield (DM yield) were monitored. Hardness, springiness, and the storage modulus were also evaluated to assess the functional properties of the cheese. Moreover, the behavior of water in the samples was investigated to ascertain the underlying mechanisms. The results indicated that 0.15 g/kg κ‐carrageenan had no significant effect on the actual yield and DM yield, and physiochemical and functional properties of low‐fat Colby cheese. The protein content increased in the low‐fat cheese and low‐fat cheese containing κ‐carrageenan, and the moisture in the nonfat substance (MNFS) decreased in both samples, which contributed to the harder texture. The addition of 0.3 g/kg ι‐carrageenan and 0.3 g/kg λ‐carrageenan improved the textural and rheological properties of low‐fat cheese by 2 ways: one is increasing the content of bound and expressible moisture due to their high water absorption capacity and the other is interfering with casein crosslinking, thereby further increasing MNFS and the actual yield.  相似文献   
6.
通过单因素和正交试验,确定大豆分离蛋白、大豆组织蛋白和卡拉胶在盐水方肠中的最适添加比例分别为22%、15%和0.99%。  相似文献   
7.
Additives stabilize or improve the organoleptic or functional properties (or both) of many dairy products including whipping cream. Their influence on the metabolic effect of dairy cream is scarcely known. We tested the hypothesis that added emulsifier (lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides; MAG/DAG), thickener (carrageenan, CGN), or both, could modify the metabolic effect, notably in the intestine and liver. Nine-week-old male C57Bl/6J mice were fed UHT cream (indirect treatment) mixed with nonlipidic powder (final: 13% milkfat) for 1 or 4 wk. We compared creams (1) without additive (Ctl), (2) with thickener (Th), 0.02% of κ-CGN, and (3) with both thickener and emulsifier, 0.1% of MAG/DAG esters (Th/Em). We analyzed plasma parameters, intestine, and liver. Fasting glycemia, insulinemia, triglyceridemia, nonesterified fatty acids, body weight gain, and liver weight did not differ among groups. After 1 wk, Th/Em had higher expression in the duodenum of some of the genes involved in (1) intestinal lipid absorption and (2) tight junction proteins versus Ctl and Th. After 4 wk, mucus cell number in the small intestine was higher in Th/Em versus Ctl and Th. Genes involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the duodenum were more expressed in Th/Em after 1 wk. After 4 wk, in the colon, a higher expression of ER stress genes was observed for Th versus Th/Em and Ctl. Liver damage score was not altered by additives. Adding both CGN (0.02%) and MAG/DAG esters (0.1%) in dairy cream did not result in deleterious outcomes in mice after 4 wk regarding lipid metabolism, intestinal permeability, and liver disorders. The longer term effect of intestinal ER stress modulation deserves further investigation.  相似文献   
8.
Context and objectives: The buccal mucosa presents a unique surface for non-invasive drug delivery and also avoids first-pass metabolism. The objective of this study was the formulation development of polymeric mucoadhesive lyophilized wafers as a matrix for potential buccal drug delivery.

Materials and methods: Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to develop an optimum freeze-cycle, incorporating an annealing step. The wafers were prepared by lyophilization of gels containing three polymers, κ-carrageenan (CAR 911), poloxamer (P407) and polyethylene glycol 600 (PEG 600). The formulations were characterized using texture analysis (for mechanical and mucoadhesion properties), hydration studies, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), DSC, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Results and discussion: DSC showed the eutectic temperature (12.8?°C) of the system where the liquid solution and pure solids both existed at a fixed pressure which helped determine the freeze-annealing cycle at 55?°C for 7?h. Mechanical resistance to compression, hydration and mucoadhesion studies showed that optimized wafers were obtained from aqueous gels containing 2% w/w CAR 911, 4% w/w P407 and 4.4% w/w PEG 600. TGA showed residual water of approximately 1% and SEM showed a porous polymeric network that made ease of hydration possible.

Conclusions: Lyophilized wafers by freeze-drying gels containing 2% w/w CAR 911, 4% w/w P407 and 4.4% w/w PEG 600 with optimum physico-mechanical properties has been achieved.  相似文献   
9.
Blends of a commercial atactic poly(vinyl alcohol) (a‐PVA) derived from vinyl acetate and κ‐carrageenan were prepared by mixing the aqueous solutions of both samples. Blend films prepared by casting were transparent. In the DSC curves of the blend films, the endothermic peaks shifted to lower temperature with an increase of the content of κ‐carrageenan. The Young's modulus and the strength at break increased with an increase of the content of a‐PVA. As the standing temperature of the blend solutions decreased, the gelation region increased also at high content of carrageenan. In the amorphous regions of blend films, a‐PVA and κ‐carrageenan were miscible. © 2001 Society of Chemical Industry  相似文献   
10.
研究海藻酸钠、洁冷胶、魔芋胶、卡拉胶在单因素条件下对花生乳稳定性影响;将花生乳于室温下放置24h后静置观察,分析样品粘度、离心沉淀率和脂肪上浮率。结果表明,四种胶体对花生乳体系增粘效果不同,但适宜质量分数均能提高体系稳定性,其中海藻酸钠、洁冷胶、魔芋胶、卡拉胶适宜用量分别为0.02%~0.04%、≥0.015%、0.015%、0.02%。  相似文献   
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