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1.
This article provides a critical assessment of H2 from the standpoint of more widespread use as a sustainable fuel for Indian mobility applications in the global context. The potential techno-economic advantages of utilizing H2 for automobiles rather than battery electric vehicles or conventional internal combustion engine vehicles are emphasized. The present assessment demonstrates that H2 production, storage, and distribution costs are the primary challenges, and a significant improvement is still necessary for H2 to compete either against the internal combustion engine vehicle or the battery electric vehicle to win the race, arguably. The secondary challenges have also been demonstrated, which include the cost of the fuel cell stack and the modifications associated with internal combustion engine vehicles, as well as regulatory and safety concerns, which impede the widespread usage of H2. It is critical that policy-making for sustainable mobility in India is possible with the aid of a National H2 Energy Road-Map. This in turn can achieve a cost target of $0.5/kg for H2.  相似文献   
2.
Periodontitis is a chronic complex inflammatory disease associated with a destructive host immune response to microbial dysbiosis, leading to irreversible loss of tooth-supporting tissues. Regeneration of functional periodontal soft (periodontal ligament and gingiva) and hard tissue components (cementum and alveolar bone) to replace lost tissues is the ultimate goal of periodontal treatment, but clinically predictable treatments are lacking. Similarly, the identification of biomarkers that can be used to accurately diagnose periodontitis activity is lacking. A relatively novel category of molecules found in oral tissue, circular RNAs (circRNAs) are single-stranded endogenous, long, non-coding RNA molecules, with covalently circular-closed structures without a 5’ cap and a 3’ tail via non-classic backsplicing. Emerging research indicates that circRNAs are tissue and disease-specific expressed and have crucial regulatory functions in various diseases. CircRNAs can function as microRNA or RNA binding sites or can regulate mRNA. In this review, we explore the biogenesis and function of circRNAs in the context of the emerging role of circRNAs in periodontitis pathogenesis and the differentiation of periodontal cells. CircMAP3K11, circCDK8, circCDR1as, circ_0062491, and circ_0095812 are associated with pathological periodontitis tissues. Furthermore, circRNAs are expressed in periodontal cells in a cell-specific manner. They can function as microRNA sponges and can form circRNA–miRNA–mRNA networks during osteogenic differentiation for periodontal-tissue (or dental pulp)-derived progenitor cells.  相似文献   
3.
In the first critical assessment of knowledge economy dynamic paths in Africa and the Middle East, but for a few exceptions, we find overwhelming support for diminishing cross-country disparities in knowledge-based economy dimensions. The paper employs all the four components of the World Bank's Knowledge Economy Index (KEI): economic incentives, innovation, education, and information infrastructure. The main finding suggests that sub-Saharan African (SSA) and the Middle East and North African (MENA) countries with low levels of KE dynamics and catching-up their counterparts of higher KE levels. We provide the speeds of integration and time necessary to achieve full (100%) integration. Policy implications are also discussed.  相似文献   
4.
Cyclodextrins (CyDs) are water-soluble host molecules possessing a nanosized hydrophobic cavity. In the realm of molecular recognition, this cavity is used not only as a recognition site but also as a reaction medium, where a hydrophobic sensor recognizes a guest molecule. Based on the latter concept, we have designed a novel supramolecular sensing system composed of Zn(II)-dipicolylamine metal complex-based azobenzene (1-Zn) and 3A-amino-3A-deoxy-(2AS,3AS)-γ-cyclodextrin (3-NH2-γ-CyD) for sensing adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP). 1-Zn showed redshifts in the UV-Vis spectra and induced circular dichroism (ICD) only when both ATP and 3-NH2-γ-CyD were present. Calculations of equilibrium constants indicated that the amino group of 3-NH2-γ-CyD was involved in the formation of supramolecular 1-Zn/3-NH2-γ-CyD/ATP. The Job plot of the ICD spectral response revealed that the stoichiometry of 1-Zn/3-NH2-γ-CyD/ATP was 2:1:1. The pH effect was examined and 1-Zn/3-NH2-γ-CyD/ATP was most stable in the neutral condition. The NOESY spectrum suggested the localization of 1-Zn in the 3-NH2-γ-CyD cavity. Based on the obtained results, the metal coordination interaction of 1-Zn and the electrostatic interaction of 3-NH2-γ-CyD were found to take place for ATP recognition. The “reaction medium approach” enabled us to develop a supramolecular sensing system that undergoes multi-point interactions in water. This study is the first step in the design of a selective sensing system based on a good understanding of supramolecular structures.  相似文献   
5.
The knowledge of turbo code's minimum Hamming distance (dmin) and its corresponding codeword multiplicity (Amin) is of a great importance because the error correction capability of a code is strongly tied to the values of dmin and Amin. Unfortunately, the computational complexity associated with the search for dmin and Amin can be very high, especially for a turbo code that has high dmin value. This paper introduces some useful properties of turbo codes that use structured interleavers together with circular encoding. These properties allow for a significant reduction of search space and thus reduce significantly the computational complexity associated with the determination of dmin and Amin values. © 2014 The Authors. International Journal of Communication Systems published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
6.
The design of a microstrip‐fed annular‐ring slot antenna (ARSA) with circular polarization (CP) radiation is initially studied. To obtain CP radiation with broad 3‐dB axial ratio (AR) bandwidth that can cover the WiMAX 2.3 GHz (2305–2320 MHz, 2345–2360 MHz) and WLAN 2.4 GHz (2400–2480 MHz) bands, a novel technique of extending an inverted L‐shaped slot from the bottom section of the annular‐ring is proposed. To suppress the harmonic modes induced by the CP ARSA, the technique of integrating a defected ground structure into the annular‐ring slot is further introduced. From the measured results, 10‐dB impedance bandwidth and 3‐dB AR bandwidth of 44.86 and 9.68% were achieved by the proposed harmonic suppressed CP ARSA. Furthermore, average gain and radiation efficiency of ~4.7 dBic and 71%, respectively, were also exhibited across the bands of interest. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J RF and Microwave CAE 25:337–345, 2015.  相似文献   
7.
涤纶工业丝环吹风改造的设计计算   总被引:2,自引:1,他引:1  
全潇 《合成技术及应用》2003,18(1):35-37,62
应用PET纤维的冷却成形理论 ,结合空气调节的相关知识 ,提出了环吹风的设计计算方法 ,对涤纶工业丝环吹风进行了设计改造 ,满足了纺丝工艺要求  相似文献   
8.
Logistic模型的改进及在油藏可采储量预测中的应用   总被引:6,自引:2,他引:4  
为了更准确地预测油气藏未来的经济可采储量,依据油气藏随开发必然要经历产量递减和生产收支平衡的实际。利用Logistic模型中技术可采储量、产量与时间的相互关系,经推导和改进后,再结合当前经济技术条件下的废弃产油量,预测油气藏的有效生产时间及其经济可呆储量。实践证实,改进后的Logistic模型预测结果更符合油气藏的生产实际,能为油气藏的储量管理提供可靠的依据。  相似文献   
9.
Reuel   《Technology in Society》2003,25(4):455-476
Hopes have again been raised about developing a “hydrogen economy”, in which hydrogen could be expected to replace oil and natural gas for most uses, including transportation and heating. It is again being claimed that hydrogen will be a widely available, clean, safe fuel. This article argues that such expectations are almost certainly illusory. Hydrogen, like electricity, is not an energy resource but an energy carrier. It takes more energy to extract hydrogen from water than burning the hydrogen can ever provide. There are also inevitable losses in storage, transmission, and final mechanical or heating applications. The question then turns on the efficiency—and safety—of the entire chain of conversion, from the energy source (fossil, solar, or other) to the final use. Moreover, energy sources (preferably renewable, for the long term) can be used for the direct creation of electricity, which can be introduced into the existing grid without requiring a vast investment in a new hydrogen distribution system. In addition, a hydrogen-based system would be unacceptably dangerous. This report will present a detailed technical and economic analysis of the problems with the proposed hydrogen economy and the advantages of some alternatives, principally electricity-based. A hypothetical case of what would be required for a hydrogen filling station serving the general public is closely examined.  相似文献   
10.
Based on model test,the statistical distribution of extreme values of wave-current in-line forces acting on vertical circular cylinder is analyzed in this paper.It is shownthat the results calculated by the simplified method,proposed by authors,agree well with the testdata;Weibull distribution is also adoptable in the region of high KC number, and the shapeparameter a and scale parameter β are related well with KC number respectively.  相似文献   
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