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1.
Inhibition of PSD-95 has emerged as a promising strategy for the treatment of ischemic stroke, as shown with peptide-based compounds that target the PDZ domains of PSD-95. In contrast, developing potent and drug-like small molecules against the PSD-95 PDZ domains has so far been unsuccessful. Here, we explore the druggability of the PSD-95 PDZ1-2 domain and use fragment screening to investigate if this protein is prone to binding small molecules. We screened 2500 fragments by fluorescence polarization (FP) and validated the hits by surface plasmon resonance (SPR), including an inhibition counter-test, and found four promising fragments. Three ligand efficient fragments were shown by 1H,15N HSQC NMR to bind in the small hydrophobic P0 pockets of PDZ1-2, and one of them underwent structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies. Overall, we demonstrate that fragment screening can successfully be applied to PDZ1-2 of PSD-95 and disclose novel fragments that can serve as starting points for optimization towards small-molecule PDZ domain inhibitors.  相似文献   
2.
孙搏  付淑军  陈桂良  李丽 《金属学报》2021,26(10):1095-1102
药物相互作用改变了剂量效应关系,可能会降低疗效或增加毒性,是临床应用中合并用药治疗时重要的考虑因素。预测具有临床意义的药物相互作用是药物研发过程中获益风险评估的重要环节。本文概述了药物研发过程中药物相互作用研究的目的和意义,体内和体外研究的主要内容;梳理分析了2020年国家药品监督管理局(National Medical Products Administration, NMPA)和美国食品药品监督管理局(Food and Drug Administration, FDA)批准上市的新药药物相互作用研究情况,旨在为我国药物研发过程中药物相互作用研究及其监管审评提供参考。  相似文献   
3.
A self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) was developed to enhance the absorption of heparin after oral administration, in which heparin was compounded with phospholipids to achieve better fat solubility in the form of heparin-phospholipid (HEP-Pc) complex. HEP-Pc complex was prepared using the solvent evaporation method, which increased the solubility of heparin in n-octanol. The successful preparation of HEP-Pc complex was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, NMR, and SEM. A heparin lipid microemulsion (HEP-LM) was prepared by high-pressure homogenization and characterized. HEP-LM can enhance the absorption of heparin after oral administration, significantly prolong activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thrombin time (TT) in mice, and reduce fibrinogen (FIB) content. All these outcomes indicate that HEP-LM has great potential as an oral heparin formulation.  相似文献   
4.
Understanding the ligandability of a target protein, defined as the capability of a protein to bind drug-like compounds on any site, can give important stimuli to drug-development projects. For instance, inhibition of protein–protein interactions usually depends on the identification of protein surface binders. DNA-encoded chemical libraries (DELs) allow scanning of protein surfaces with large chemical space. Encoded library selection screens uncovered several protein–protein interaction inhibitors and compounds binding to the surface of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and kinases. The protein surface-binding chemotypes from DELs are predominantly chemically modified and cyclized peptides, and functional small-molecule peptidomimetics. Peptoid libraries and structural peptidomimetics have been less studied in the DEL field, hinting at hitherto less populated chemical space and suggesting alternative library designs. Roughly a third of bioactive molecules evolved from smaller, target-focused libraries. They showcase the potential of encoded libraries to identify more potent molecules from weak, for example, fragment-like, starting points.  相似文献   
5.
The G protein-coupled receptor GPR183/EBI2, which is activated by oxysterols, is a therapeutic target for inflammatory and metabolic diseases where both antagonists and agonists are of potential interest. Using the piperazine diamide core of the known GPR183 antagonist (E)-3-(4-bromophenyl)-1-(4-(4-methoxybenzoyl)piperazin-1-yl)prop-2-en-1-one (NIBR189) as starting point, we identified and sourced 79 structurally related compounds that were commercially available. In vitro screening of this compound collection using a Ca2+ mobilization assay resulted in the identification of 10 compounds with agonist properties. To enable establishment of initial structure-activity relationship trends, these were supplemented with five in-house compounds, two of which were also shown to be GPR183 agonists. Taken together, our findings suggest that the agonist activity of this compound series is dictated by the substitution pattern of one of the two distal phenyl rings, which functions as a molecular efficacy-switch.  相似文献   
6.
In the search for the ideal model of tumours, the use of three-dimensional in vitro models is advancing rapidly. These are intended to mimic the in vivo properties of the tumours which affect cancer development, progression and drug sensitivity, and take into account cell–cell interactions, adhesion and invasiveness. Importantly, it is hoped that successful recapitulation of the structure and function of the tissue will predict patient response, permitting the development of personalized therapy in a timely manner applicable to the clinic. Furthermore, the use of co-culture systems will allow the role of the tumour microenvironment and tissue–tissue interactions to be taken into account and should lead to more accurate predictions of tumour development and responses to drugs. In this review, the relative merits and limitations of patient-derived organoids will be discussed compared to other in vitro and ex vivo cancer models. We will focus on their use as models for drug testing and personalized therapy and how these may be improved. Developments in technology will also be considered, including the use of microfluidics, 3D bioprinting, cryopreservation and circulating tumour cell-derived organoids. These have the potential to enhance the consistency, accessibility and availability of these models.  相似文献   
7.
Resistance to chemotherapy still remains a major challenge in the clinic, impairing the quality of life and survival rate of patients. The identification of unconventional chemosensitizing agents is therefore an interesting aspect of cancer research. Resveratrol has emerged in the last decades as a fascinating molecule, able to modulate several cancer-related molecular mechanisms, suggesting a possible application as an adjuvant in cancer management. This review goes deep into the existing literature concerning the possible chemosensitizing effect of resveratrol associated with the most conventional chemotherapeutic drugs. Despite the promising effects observed in different cancer types in in vitro studies, the clinical translation still presents strong limitations due to the low bioavailability of resveratrol. Recently, efforts have been moved in the field of drug delivery to identifying possible strategies/formulations useful for a more effective administration. Despite the necessity of a huge implementation in this research area, resveratrol appears as a promising molecule able to sensitize resistant tumors to drugs, suggesting its potential use in therapy-refractory cancer patients.  相似文献   
8.
Bone related diseases have caused serious threats to human health owing to their complexity and specificity. Fortunately, owing to the unique 3D network structure with high aqueous content and functional properties, emerging hydrogels are regarded as one of the most promising candidates for bone tissue engineering, such as repairing cartilage injury, skull defect, and arthritis. Herein, various design strategies and synthesis methods (e.g., 3D-printing technology and nanoparticle composite strategy) are introduced to prepare implanted hydrogel scaffolds with tunable mechanical strength, favorable biocompatibility, and excellent bioactivity for applying in bone regeneration. Injectable hydrogels based on biocompatible materials (e.g., collagen, hyaluronic acid, chitosan, polyethylene glycol, etc.) possess many advantages in minimally invasive surgery, including adjustable physicochemical properties, filling irregular shapes of defect sites, and on-demand release drugs or growth factors in response to different stimuli (e.g., pH, temperature, redox, enzyme, light, magnetic, etc.). In addition, drug delivery systems based on micro/nanogels are discussed, and its numerous promising designs used in the application of bone diseases (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, cartilage defect) are also briefed in this review. Particularly, several key factors of hydrogel scaffolds (e.g., mechanical property, pore size, and release behavior of active factors) that can induce bone tissue regeneration are also summarized in this review. It is anticipated that advanced approaches and innovative ideas of bioactive hydrogels will be exploited in the clinical field and increase the life quality of patients with the bone injury.  相似文献   
9.
Tumor-specific enhanced delivery of chemotherapeutics and modulators to tumor cells and activated pancreatic stellate cells (aPSCs), respectively, represents safer and more effective therapy for pancreatic cancer. Herein, a membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP)-cleavable spacer is used to assemble low-density cRGDfK onto thermosensitive liposomes loaded with phosphorylated calcipotriol (PCAL) and doxorubicin (DOX), yielding MR-T-PD. The liposome-linked cRGDfK prodrug on MR-T-PD surface is first activated by MT1-MMP, which is selectively expressed on tumor endothelial cells, to release cRGDfK. The free cRGDfK specifically promotes tumor angiogenesis, leading to 3.4-fold higher accumulation and a wider distribution of MR-T-PD in tumors. Furthermore, MR-T-PD rapidly releases PCAL and DOX into the interstitium under heat treatment. The released DOX enters tumor cells to induce apoptosis, whereas the PCAL prodrug is converted to CAL by alkaline phosphatase on the surface of aPSCs; CAL can then enter aPSCs to induce quiescence and promote the antitumor effect of DOX. Finally, by enhancing the exposure of DOX and CAL to tumor cells and aPSCs, respectively, in a tumor-specific manner, MR-T-PD exerts superior efficacy (a 5.9-fold decrease in tumor weight) without causing additional side effects. Overall, this prodrug-based smart liposome system represents a promising paradigm for pancreatic cancer therapy.  相似文献   
10.
Pain management during dental procedures is a cornerstone for successful daily practice. In current practice, the traditional needle and syringe injection is used to administer local anesthesia. However, the appearance of long needles and the pain associated with it often leads to dental anxiety deterring timely interventions. Microneedles (MNs) have emerged as a minimally invasive alternative to hypodermic needles and shown to be effective in transdermal drug delivery applications. In this article, the potential use of MNs for local anesthesia delivery in dentistry is explored. The development of a novel conductive MN array that can be used in combination with iontophoresis technique to achieve drug penetration through the oral mucosa and the underlying bone tissue is presented. The conductive MN array plays a dual-role, creating micro-conduits and lowering the resistance of the oral mucosa. The reduced tissue resistance further enhances the application of a low-voltage current that is able to direct and accelerate the drug molecules to target the sensory nerves supplying teeth. The successful delivery of lidocaine using this new strategy in a clinically relevant rabbit incisor model is shown to be as effective as the current gold standard.  相似文献   
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