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1.
结合全球倡导的营养导向型农业和功能性食品的内容,首次提出“功能性小麦品种”的概念,将其定义为“含有对人体健康有益的活性成分,可调节人体有益代谢,能给人体健康带来某种益处或满足特定人群的特殊需求,同时可以作为日常食物的口感正常、无毒副作用的小麦品种类型”;结合疫情警示和我国进入后工业时代后,人们需求必将由“吃得饱”、“吃得好”向“吃得健康”转变,因而提出继高产品种、优质品种之后培育“功能性小麦品种”的育种目标。根据多年关于小麦淀粉、蛋白、酯类和其他成分的功能研究结果,介绍新育成的“麦黄酮”、“高色素”、“高抗性淀粉”、“富锌”、“低醇溶蛋白”和“低植酸”等功能性小麦新品种(系)的营养特性和农艺产量状况;根据“健康中国2030”规划等国家战略,进行“功能性品种培育是解决我国功能性食品‘卡脖子’的关键基础,一种功能性品种可以形成一类功能性食品,多种功能性品种可以形成我国功能性面制品产业,推动我国整个食品工业的发展”的前景展望;根据功能性品种及其食品的稳定性和可靠性是产品和市场的“生命线”,从对消费者负责的高度,提出关于“功能性农作物品种审定导向和组建功能性成分检测机构;编制有关功能性品种和食品的国家或行业标准,设立功能性食品和功能性农作物品种的商业标志,保证我国功能性农作物品种及其食品健康发展”等方面的具体建议。  相似文献   
2.
Herein, we report the photosensing property of CdS thin films. CdS thin films were coated onto glass substrates via a spray pyrolysis method using different spray pressures. Prepared films were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and optical and photoluminescence spectroscopy. XRD analysis demonstrated the growth of crystalline CdS films with crystallite sizes varying from 26 to 29 nm depending on the pressure. The SEM and EDAX analyses revealed nearly-stoichiometric CdS films with smooth surfaces and slight variation in grain morphology due to pressure changes. Optical measurements showed a direct bandgap varying from 2.37 eV to 2.42 eV due to pressure changes. A photodetector was also fabricated using the grown CdS films; the fabricated photodetector exhibited good performance depending on the spray pressure. A spray pressure of 1.5 GPa resulted in high photoresponsivity and external quantum efficiency.  相似文献   
3.
A novel carbon/m-HNTs composite aerogel was synthesized by introducing the modified halloysite nanotubes (m-HNTs) into phenolic (PR) aerogels through chemical grafting, followed with carbonization treatment. In order to explore the best proportion of HNTs to phenolic, the micromorphology of PR/m-HNTs were investigated by SEM before carbonization, confirming 10 wt% of m-HNTs is most beneficial to the porous network of aerogels. The interaction between PR and HNTs was studied by FTIR spectra, and microstructure evolution of the target product-carbon/m-HNTs composite aerogel were illustrated by SEM and TEM techniques. SEM patterns indicated that the carbon/m-HNTs aerogels maintain a stable porous structure at 1000 °C (carbonization temperature), while a ~20 nm carbon layer was formed around m-HNTs generating an integral unit through TEM analysis. Specific surface area and pore size distribution of composite aerogels were analyzed based on mercury intrusion porosimetry and N2 adsorption–desorption method, the obtained results stayed around 500 m2g?1 and 1.00 cm3g?1 (pore volume) without significant discrepancy, compared with pure aerogel, showing the uniformity of pore size. The weight loss rate (26.76%) decreased greatly compared with pure aerogel, at the same time, the best volumetric shrinkage rate was only 30.83%, contributed by the existence of HNTs supporting the neighbor structure to avoid over-shrinking. The highest compressive strength reached to 4.43 MPa, while the data of pure aerogel was only 1.52 MPa, demonstrating the excellent mechanical property of carbon/m-HNTs aerogels.  相似文献   
4.
The main scope of this comprehensive study is to investigate the effects of poly(p-benzophenoneoxycarbonylphenyl acrylate), poly(BPOCPA), which presenting as only graft units or both graft and ungrafted units in the matrix, on the fundamental features of isotactic polypropylene (IPP). The graft copolymerization of BPOCPA onto IPP was performed with the aid of bulk melt polymerization at varying monomer content levels ranging from 5% to 40%. The thermal behavior, crystal quality, mechanical performance, and surface morphology of the samples were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimeter, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), universal mechanical test, and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques. Thermal analyses depicted that there existed the noteworthy enhancements in both crystalline melting temperatures and percent crystallinities of matrix polymers. Furthermore, according to XRD results, a and b parameters increased significantly at low percentages of the graft units, while the parameter c decreased in all products in consistence with the content. As for the mechanical characterization, the grafting led to remarkable improvements in modulus, tensile and impact strength of the products. SEM micrographs indicated that the samples were completely homogeneous without any phase separation and the products exhibited brittle nature with some ductility.  相似文献   
5.
Laser aided additive manufacturing(LAAM)was used to fabricate bulk Fe49.5Mn30Co10Cr10C0.5 interstitial multicomponent alloy using pre-alloyed powder.The room temperature yield strength(σy),ultimate tensile strength(σUTS)and elongation(εUST)were 645 MPa,917 MPa and 27.0%respectively.The as-built sample consisted of equiaxed and dendritic cellular structures formed by elemental segregation.These cellular structures together with oxide particle inclusions were deemed to strengthen the material.The other contributing components include dislocation strengthening,friction stress and grain bound-ary strengthening.The high εUTS was attributed to dislocation motion and activation of both twinning and transformation-induced plasticity(TWIP and TRIP).Tensile tests performed at-40℃and-130℃demonstrated superior tensile strength of 1041 MPa and 1267 MPa respectively.However,almost no twinning was observed in the fractured sample tested at-40℃and-130℃.Instead,higher fraction of strain-induced hexagonal close-packed(HCP)ε phase transformation of 21.2%were observed for fractured sample tested at-40℃,compared with 6.3%in fractured room temperature sample.  相似文献   
6.
Based on the experimental reports, Au-decoration on the ZnO nanostructures dramatically increases the electronic sensitivity to H2S gas. In the current study, we computationally scrutinized the mechanism of Au-decoration on a ZnO nanotube (ZON) and the influence on its sensing behavior toward H2S gas. The intrinsic ZON weakly interacted with the H2S gas with an adsorption energy of ?11.2 kcal/mol. The interaction showed no effect on the HOMO–LUMO gap and conductivity of ZON. The predicted response of intrinsic ZON toward H2S gas is 6.3, which increases to 78.1 by the Au-decoration at 298 K. The corresponding experimental values are about 5.0 and 80.0, indicating excellent agreement with our findings. We showed that the Au atom catalyzes the reaction 3O2?+?2H2S?→?2SO2?+?2H2O. Our calculated energy barrier (at 298 K) is about 12.3 kcal/mol for this reaction. The gap and electrical conductance Au-ZON largely changed by this reaction are attributed to the electron donation and back-donation processes. The obtained recovery time is about 1.35 ms for desorption of generated gases from the surface of the Au-ZON sensor.  相似文献   
7.
梯度分层铝合金蜂窝板是一种有效的吸能结构,本工作在梯度铝蜂窝结构的基础上根据梯度率的概念,通过改变蜂窝芯层的胞壁长度,设计了4种质量相同、梯度率不同的铝蜂窝夹芯结构。通过准静态压缩实验,并结合非线性有限元模拟准静态及冲击态下梯度铝蜂窝夹芯结构的变形情况及其力学性能,分析对比了相同质量下梯度铝蜂窝夹芯结构在准静态下的变形模式以及冲击载荷下分层均质蜂窝结构和不同梯度率的分层梯度蜂窝结构的动态响应和能量吸收特性。结果表明:在准静态压缩过程中,铝蜂窝梯度夹芯板的变形具有明显的局部化特征,蜂窝芯的变形为低密度优先变形直至密实,层级之间的密实化应变差随芯层密度的增大而逐渐减小;在高速冲击下,梯度蜂窝板并非严格按照准静态过程中逐级变形直至密实,而是在锤头冲击惯性及芯层密度的相互作用下整体发生的线弹性变形、弹性屈曲、塑性坍塌及密实化;另外,在本工作所设计的梯度率中,当梯度率为γ1=0.0276时,梯度蜂窝夹芯板的吸能性达到最好,相较于同等质量下的均质蜂窝夹芯板,能量吸收提高了10.63%。  相似文献   
8.
In this communication, the structural, micro-structural, dielectric, electrical, magnetic, and leakage-current characteristics of a double perovskite (Y2CoMnO6) ceramic material have been reported. The material was synthesized via a high-temperature mixed-oxide route. The compound crystallizes in a monoclinic structure which is confirmed from preliminary X-ray structural study. The morphological study by using scanning electron micrograph reveals the almost homogeneous distribution of grains throughout the surface of the sample. The nature of frequency-dependence of dielectric constant has been described by the Maxwell-Wagner model. The occurrence of a dielectric anomaly in the temperature dependence of dielectric permittivity study demonstrates the ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition in the material. From the Nyquist plots, we found the existence of both grain and grain boundary effects. The frequency dependence of conductivity was studied by the Jonscher’s Power law, and the conduction phenomenon obeys the large overlapping polaron tunneling model. By using the Arrhenius equation, the activation energy has been calculated which is nearly equal to the energy required for the hoping of the electron. Both impedance and conductivity analysis demonstrate that the sample exhibits negative temperature coefficient of resistance (NTCR) properties indicating the semiconducting type of material at high temperatures. The anti-ferromagnetic character of the material is observed from the nature of magnetic hysteresis loop. The leakage current analysis suggests that the conduction process in the material follows the space charge limited conduction phenomenon. Such material will be helpful for modern electronic devices and spintronic applications.  相似文献   
9.
《Ceramics International》2021,47(19):26891-26897
KLS-1 Lunar regolith simulant was microwave sintered to explore its potential applicability in future lunar construction. The effects of sintering temperature on linear shrinkage, density, porosity, and microstructural, mechanical, and thermal properties were investigated. As the sintering temperature increased, linear shrinkage and density increased and porosity decreased. Structural evolution in the sintered samples was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Unconfined compressive strength testing showed that mechanical strength increased significantly with increasing sintering temperature, with 1120 °C giving the highest strength of 37.0 ± 4.8 MPa. The sintered samples exhibited a coefficient of thermal expansion of approximately 5 × 10−6 °C−1, which was well-maintained even after cyclic temperature stress between −100 and 200 °C. Therefore, this microwave processing appears promising for the fabrication of building material with sufficient mechanical strength and thermal durability for lunar construction.  相似文献   
10.
Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are a kind of sustainable nanoparticle from biomass, which are widely used as reinforcing filler and assembly building block for high-performance composites and function materials including biomaterial, optics, and so forth. Here, their unique advantages in material applications were reviewed based on their rod-like morphology, crystalline structure, dimension-related effects, and multi-level order structure. Then, we focused on the molecular engineering of CNCs, including the structure and physicochemical properties of their surface, along with surface modification methods and steric effects. We further discussed the performance-improvement and functionalization methods based on multi-component complex systems, together with the effects of surface molecular engineering on the performance and functions. Meanwhile, methods of optimizing orientation in uniaxial arrays were discussed along with those of enhancing photoluminescence efficiency via surface chemical modification and substance coordination. In the end, we prospected the design, development, and construction methods of new CNCs materials.  相似文献   
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