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1.
In this study, the effect of high-intensity ultrasound (HIUS) (200 and 400 W for 0, 5, 10 and 15 min respectively) on conformational changes, physicochemical, rheological and emulsifying properties of scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) myofibrillar protein (SMP) was investigated. HIUS-treated SMP had lower α-helix content and higher β-sheet content compared with the native SMP. HIUS treatment induced the unfolding of SMP and increased the surface hydrophobicity. The particle size of SMP decreased and the absolute zeta-potential increased after ultrasonication, which in turn increased the solubility of SMP. The conformational changes and the improvement of physicochemical properties of SMP increased the ability for SMP to lower the interfacial tension at the oil–water interface and increased the percentage of adsorbed protein. As a result, the emulsifying properties, rheological properties of SMP and storage stability of emulsions were also improved. In conclusion, HIUS treatment has future potential for improving the emulsifying properties of SMP.  相似文献   
2.
Effects of different drying methods and different addition levels of eggplant (EP) on product quality of low-fat patties (LFPs) were investigated during storage. EP was dried in an oven dryer at 60 °C or a freeze dryer at −50 °C. LFPs were prepared by replacing with 1.5% soy protein isolate (SPI). Six treatments were used in this study: (1) control (CTL), without addition of EP; (2) reference (REF), 0.1% ascorbic acid; (3) O1, 0.25% oven-dried (OD) EP; (4) O2, 0.5% ODEP; (5) F1, 0.25% freeze-dried (FD) EP; and (6) F2, 0.5% FDEP. Redness (a*) and lightness (L*) values in LFPs added with EP were lower than those of others (p < 0.05) and decreased with increasing storage time. Yellowness (b*) values of cooked patties were increased during storage time (p < 0.05), with control having the highest value. The addition of EP or ascorbic acid into LFPs lowered microbial counts than control (p < 0.05). Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was increased during storage, with REF having the lowest value, and patties added with EP had lower TBARS values than control during storage. Volatile basic nitrogen (VBN, mg%) contents of all patties also increased during storage time with O2 and F2 having lower values than control. Therefore, EP might have potential as a natural antioxidant in meat products during storage.  相似文献   
3.
While protein medications are promising for treatment of cancer and autoimmune diseases, challenges persist in terms of development and injection stability of high-concentration formulations. Here, the extensional flow properties of protein-excipient solutions are examined via dripping-onto-substrate extensional rheology, using a model ovalbumin (OVA) protein and biocompatible excipients polysorbate 20 (PS20) and 80 (PS80). Despite similar PS structures, differences in extensional flow are observed based on PS identity in two regimes: at moderate total concentrations where surface tension differences drive changes in extensional flow behavior, and at small PS:OVA ratios, which impact the onset of weakly elastic flow behavior. Undesirable elasticity is observed in ultra-concentrated formulations, independent of PS identity; higher PS contents are required to observe these effects than in analogous polymeric excipient solutions. These studies reveal novel extensional flow behaviors in protein-excipient solutions, and provide a straightforward methodology for assessing the extensional flow stability of new protein-excipient formulations.  相似文献   
4.
This study investigated the effect of 5 freeze–thaw cycles (freezing at −18°C for 12 h and then thawing at 4°C for approximately 12 h) on the meat quality, proximate composition, water distribution and microstructure of bovine rumen smooth muscle (BSM). As the number of freeze–thaw cycles increased, BSM pH, shear force, water content and protein content decreased by 3.06%, 35.50%, 14.49% and 21.11%, respectively, whereas BSM thawing loss, cooking loss, pressing loss, total aerobic count (TAC), ash content and fat content increased by 108.12%, 47.75%, 78.33%, 90.99%, 105% and 35.20%, respectively. The freeze–thaw cycles resulted in greater protein and lipid oxidation, as evidenced by a 36.46% reduction in the sulfhydryl content and a 209.06% and 338.46% increase in the carbonyl and malondialdehyde contents, respectively. Ice crystal formation disrupted the structural integrity of the muscle tissue. Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance results showed that the freeze–thaw cycles prolonged the relaxation times (T2b, T21 and T22), indicating that immobile water shifted to free water, and consequently, free water mobility increased. After 3 freeze–thaw cycles, the decline in shear force slowed, the increase in thawing loss became accelerated, and the TAC approached the domain value (6 log colony-forming units/g). Therefore, the number of freeze–thaw cycles of smooth muscle during transport, storage and distribution should be controlled to 3 or fewer. The current results provide a theoretical basis and data support for the further utilisation and culinary processing of smooth muscle.  相似文献   
5.
为提高Western Blotting结果的可靠性,以蛋白溶出率和凝胶电泳蛋白条带完整性为指标,比较提取液种类、研磨方式、酶抑制剂种类及其体积分数和提取时间对南美白对虾肝胰腺蛋白提取效果的影响。采用优化后的提取方法获得高质量蛋白样品,并采用Western Blotting法分析无水环境胁迫后南美白对虾肝胰腺组织中细胞凋亡信号通路相关蛋白的表达水平。结果表明:RIPA裂解液作为提取溶剂所得的蛋白溶出率高于水提和磷酸盐缓冲液,电动匀浆和液氮研磨所得蛋白条带更完整,4%蛋白酶磷酸酶混合抑制剂能有效抑制肝胰腺内源酶引起的蛋白降解;采用Western Blotting法分析无水保活期间南美白对虾肝胰腺蛋白,发现低温诱导休眠的同时会引起细胞轻微凋亡,且凋亡水平呈应激时间依赖性增加,环境胁迫解除后有所回调。  相似文献   
6.
《Journal of dairy science》2022,105(2):1099-1114
Variability of protein and energy supply from pasture during the grazing season is a primary factor that can influence milk production of grazing organic dairy herds in the Northeast United States. This study evaluated the effects of altering the crude protein (CP) content of dietary supplements included in dairy rations fed to grazing organic dairy herds, on milk production and composition. Six commercial organic farms participated in a 6-wk trial, consisting of a 2-wk baseline period and 4-wk experimental period. Farms were paired by their summer 2017 milk urea nitrogen profile, and farms within each pair were assigned by restricted randomization to (1) continuation of their regular supplements (n = 3, control group, CON), or (2) supplement with altered CP as percentage of dry matter, formulated using an organic barley and roasted soybean mix (n = 3, treatment group, TRT). Throughout the 6-wk trial, individual milk samples were collected at 2 consecutive milkings weekly, while pasture and supplement samples, pasture measurements, and management information were collected twice weekly per farm. Data were statistically analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (version 9.4, SAS Institute Inc.) for all parameters, and effects of treatment, week, and their interaction (treatment × week) were determined. The supplement CP (percentage of dry matter) during the baseline period was 13.5% for CON and 15.3% for TRT and 14.8% for CON and 19.3% for TRT during the experimental period. Milk production was 21% higher during the experimental period for TRT compared with CON (24.1 vs. 19.9 kg of milk per day, respectively). Milk production decreased for CON from wk 1 to wk 6 (23.6 vs. 20.4 kg of milk per day), whereas TRT maintained milked production from wk 1 to wk 6 (22.8 vs. 22.7 kg of milk per day). Milk composition was different between groups, with CON having higher fat percent (4.21 vs. 3.73%, respectively) and protein percent (3.15 vs. 3.05%, respectively) compared with TRT for the 6 wk. The milk urea nitrogen concentrations were similar between TRT and CON for the baseline period (11.9 vs. 12.1 mg/dL) and the final week of the experimental period (14.5 vs. 14.2 mg/dL). Although the effects of different diet CP fractions, particularly rumen undegradable protein and soluble protein, must be further delineated, these results indicate that altering the CP content of dietary supplements fed to grazing organic dairy cattle during the summer period in the Northeast US could be a useful mechanism to maintain milk production.  相似文献   
7.
8.
Redox (reduction–oxidation) reactions control many important biological processes in all organisms, both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. This reaction is usually accomplished by canonical disulphide-based pathways involving a donor enzyme that reduces the oxidised cysteine residues of a target protein, resulting in the cleavage of its disulphide bonds. Focusing on human vitamin K epoxide reductase (hVKORC1) as a target and on four redoxins (protein disulphide isomerase (PDI), endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductase (ERp18), thioredoxin-related transmembrane protein 1 (Tmx1) and thioredoxin-related transmembrane protein 4 (Tmx4)) as the most probable reducers of VKORC1, a comparative in-silico analysis that concentrates on the similarity and divergence of redoxins in their sequence, secondary and tertiary structure, dynamics, intraprotein interactions and composition of the surface exposed to the target is provided. Similarly, hVKORC1 is analysed in its native state, where two pairs of cysteine residues are covalently linked, forming two disulphide bridges, as a target for Trx-fold proteins. Such analysis is used to derive the putative recognition/binding sites on each isolated protein, and PDI is suggested as the most probable hVKORC1 partner. By probing the alternative orientation of PDI with respect to hVKORC1, the functionally related noncovalent complex formed by hVKORC1 and PDI was found, which is proposed to be a first precursor to probe thiol–disulphide exchange reactions between PDI and hVKORC1.  相似文献   
9.
Cytochrome P450s are heme-thiolate enzymes that participate in carbon source assimilation, natural compound biosynthesis and xenobiotic metabolism in all kingdoms of life. P450s can catalyze various reactions by using a wide range of organic compounds, thus exhibiting great potential in biotechnological applications. The catalytic reactions of P450s are driven by electron equivalents that are sourced from pyridine nucleotides and delivered by cognate or matching redox partners (RPs). The electron transfer (ET) route from RPs to P450s involves one or more redox center-containing domains. As the rate of ET is one of the main determinants of P450 efficacy, an in-depth understanding of the P450 ET pathway should increase our knowledge of these important enzymes and benefit their further applications. Here, the various P450 RP systems along with current understanding of their ET routes will be reviewed. Notably, state-of-the-art structural studies of the two main types of self-sufficient P450 will also be summarized.  相似文献   
10.
Cell surface and secreted proteins provide essential functions for multicellular life. They enter the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen co-translationally, where they mature and fold into their complex three-dimensional structures. The ER is populated with a host of molecular chaperones, associated co-factors, and enzymes that assist and stabilize folded states. Together, they ensure that nascent proteins mature properly or, if this process fails, target them for degradation. BiP, the ER HSP70 chaperone, interacts with unfolded client proteins in a nucleotide-dependent manner, which is tightly regulated by eight DnaJ-type proteins and two nucleotide exchange factors (NEFs), SIL1 and GRP170. Loss of SIL1′s function is the leading cause of Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome (MSS), an autosomal recessive, multisystem disorder. The development of animal models has provided insights into SIL1′s functions and MSS-associated pathologies. This review provides an in-depth update on the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying SIL1′s NEF activity and its role in maintaining ER homeostasis and normal physiology. A precise understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms associated with the loss of SIL1 may allow for the development of new pharmacological approaches to treat MSS.  相似文献   
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