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人体所必需的营养素除了蛋白质、脂类、糖类等能量物质外,维生素也是不可或缺的营养物质,是评价其营养质量的关键指标。检测食品中的维生素含量,是有效保证其质量与安全的必要条件。因此,对现有国家标准食品中维生素的检测方法进行综述,总结各方法的前处理及检出限等,为增强检测工作效率,以及食品检测方法的研究和发展提供参考。  相似文献   
3.
Various products, including foods and pharmaceuticals, are sensitive to temperature fluctuations. Thus, temperature monitoring during production, transportation, and storage is critical. Facile indicators are required to monitor temperature conditions via color changes in real time. This study aimed to prepare and apply thiol-functionalized covalent organic frameworks (COFs) as a novel indicator for monitoring thermal history and temperature abuse. The COFs underwent obvious color changes from bright yellow to purple after exposure to different temperatures for varying durations. The reaction kinetics are analyzed under isothermal conditions, which reveal that the order of reaction rates is k−20°C < k4°C < k20°C < k35°C < k55°C. The activation energy (Ea) of the COFs is calculated using the Arrhenius equation as 50.71 kJ moL−1. The COFs are capable of sensitive color changes and offer a broad temperature tracking range, thereby demonstrating their application potential for the monitoring of temperature and time exposure history during production, transportation, and storage. This excellent performance thermal history indicator also shows promise for expanding the application field of COFs.  相似文献   
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Sex reversal has been used as a breeding strategy by salmonid fish to produce genetically and phenotypically single sex populations. Production of all-female fish has great importance for the creation of monosex female triploids of salmonid fish, which are valued for their sterility, lack of female maturation, and larger commercial size. Among salmonids, the majority of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) production is based on all-female production with a high proportion of all-female triploid production in Europe. The main aim of this review is to present the recent knowledge regarding sex-reversed females (SRFs) of salmonid fish. We discuss the methods of sex reversal as well as their effects on the morphology and histology of the reproductive tract. We focus on the characteristics of SRF semen as well as the factors determining semen quality. The lower quality of SRF sperm compared to that of normal males has resulted in the need for the artificial maturation of semen. Most importantly, methods of semen storage—both short-term and long-term (cryopreservation)—that can improve hatchery operations are presented with the special emphasis on recent progress in development of efficient cryopreservation procedures and use of cryopreserved semen in hatchery practice. Moreover, we also address the emerging knowledge concerning the proteomic investigations of salmonid sperm, focusing primarily on the proteomic comparison of normal male and SRF testicular semen and presenting changes in SRF rainbow trout sperm proteome after in vitro incubation in artificial seminal plasma.  相似文献   
6.
基于GA-BP的汽车风振噪声声品质预测模型   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
目前对于汽车风振噪声的优化研究主要以声压级(Sound pressure level,SPL)作为单一评价指标,既不能全面反映噪声的物理属性,也无法考虑人耳对噪声的主观认知过程。为准确评价风振噪声,引入声品质,运用大涡模拟(Large eddy simulation,LES)对风振噪声进行数值仿真,根据实车道路试验判断仿真的准确性;对仿真结果进行声品质客观评价与主观评价,综合声品质客观评价参数与声品质主观评价试验结果建立BP神经网络预测模型;利用遗传算法(Genetic algorithm,GA),进一步对BP神经网络的结构参数进行优化,建立GA-BP声品质预测模型。研究结果表明,GA-BP声品质预测模型在训练速度和预测精度上都优于BP神经网络预测模型。预测模型基于声品质主客观评价结果,其预测值可以代替传统的声压级评价指标,为风振噪声提供更为准确合理的评价。  相似文献   
7.
This paper proposes a parameter adjustable dynamic mass and energy balance simulation model for an industrial alkaline water electrolyzer plant that enables cost and energy efficiency optimization by means of system dimensioning and control. Thus, the simulation model is based on mathematical models and white box coding, and it uses a practicable number of fixed parameters. Zero-dimensional energy and mass balances of each unit operation of a 3 MW, and 16 bar plant process were solved in MATLAB functions connected via a Simulink environment. Verification of the model was accomplished using an analogous industrial plant of the same power and pressure range having the same operational systems design. The electrochemical, mass flow and thermal behavior of the simulation and the industrial plant were compared to ascertain the accuracy of the model and to enable modification and detailed representation of real case scenarios so that the model is suitable for use in future plant optimization studies. The thermal model dynamically predicted the real case with 98.7 % accuracy. Shunt currents were the main contributor to relative low Faraday efficiency of 86 % at nominal load and steady-state operation and heat loss to ambient from stack was only 2.6 % of the total power loss.  相似文献   
8.
介绍了浙江石油化工有限公司新建的3 Mt/a柴油加氢精制装置,其配套使用中国石化石油化工科学研究院有限公司开发的催化剂级配技术,并实施了可根据原料供应及市场产品需求情况灵活调整切换的2种生产技术方案。1 a的安稳生产运行结果表明:该装置以直馏柴油为主原料,通过分馏塔的馏分切割及其侧线抽出,实现了稳产国Ⅵ柴油并兼产喷气燃料技术方案的工业化应用;在实施以兼产喷气燃料为主的生产技术方案时,通过调整常一线柴油的掺炼量,不仅可以生产含硫量小于10.0 μg/g的精制柴油产品,同时兼产所得到的喷气燃料产品含硫量小于0.5 μg/g,赛波特颜色号值大于30;在实施主产精制柴油组分方案时,通过掺炼质量分数为20%~40%的催化柴油,并使所提炼得到的精制柴油组分含硫量小于6.0 μg/g的前提下,这些精制柴油组分产品既可直接作为满足国Ⅵ柴油产品出厂待售,也可作为柴油调和组分储存待用于产品的进一步优化。  相似文献   
9.
Brown rice noodles (RN) are typical whole-grain products with health benefits. This study investigated the effects of rice bran fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum on palatability, volatile profiles, and antioxidant activity of brown RN. Three kinds of RN, including RN, brown RN (BRN), and bran fermented RN (BFRN), were involved in this study. The results indicated that bran fermentation reduced the cooking loss of BFRN and improved the elongation and the sensory attributes of brown RN. After fermentation, aldehydes were significantly decreased while alcohols increased, and more pleasant flavours were shown in BFRN. Fermentation increased the content of free phenolics and decreased the content of bound phenolics. Among the four major phenolics detected in this study, ferulic acid was the most abundant one in all three RN samples. The DPPH radical scavenging activity and the ferric reducing antioxidant power of free phenolics in BFRN increased significantly compared to BRN. This study proved that rice bran fermentation is an effective approach to improve palatability, enrich the flavour as well as enhance the antioxidant activity of brown RN, which may facilitate the development of processing technology for brown RN.  相似文献   
10.
Freezing methods have evolved over the last 30 years. This review states the effect of various freezing methods on the quality of fish and seafood. Freezing temperatures, freezing, and frozen storage temperatures were also analyzed and reviewed. The changes in the ice crystal, protein, and lipid affect the fish quality and nutritional value during freezing and frozen storage. Freezing methods when combined with various additives or preprocessing approaches help improve the efficacy of freezing and frozen storage. Several experimental or emerging methods also have positive effects on the products' quality. According to the metadata reanalysis of quality markers, freshly frozen fish using different freezing methods may vary much in terms of ice diameter, but not others. High pressure freezing or immersion freezing-derived fish retains the best quality through frozen storage. More data are required on freezing methods (electrical-assisted freezing, microwave-assisted freezing, magnetic-assisted freezing, radiofrequency-assisted freezing, and the commercial's application and investment should be considered in the future. This review sheds light on finding a balanced initial shear force during freezing and the use of certain additives to control freezing-related damages. Focusing on ice diameter alone may be futile (e.g., liquid N2 freezing). Future optimization of technologies should be in a way that several processes along the farm to fork such as freezing, frozen storage, thawing, thermal processing of fish, and even refabrication of food should mutually complement each other's needs to deliver safe and high-quality fish to the consumer's plate, even after a prolonged shelf-life.  相似文献   
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