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1.
Chemical durability of lanthanide zirconates (A2Zr2O7) (A = La-Yb) under near-field environments is important for evaluating their application as potential nuclear waste forms. In this work, A2Zr2O7 (A = La-Yb) are synthesized by spark plasma sintering with controlled microstructure and their chemical durability are evaluated in a nitric acid solution (pH = 1). Scanning transmission electron microscopy analysis reveals an amorphous passivation film either enriched with Zr or lanthanide. The complex chemistry of the passivation films can be correlated with a transition in corrosion mechanisms from a preferential release of lanthanide in La2Zr2O7 to a preferential release of Zr in Er2Zr2O7 and Yb2Zr2O7. These results suggest a dominant mechanism of incongruent dissolution and surface reorganization for the formation of passivation films. Strong correlations are identified between the leaching rates and cation ionic size, ionic potential, electronegativity differences between A-site cation and Zr, and bonding valence sum of oxygen, suggesting important impacts of structural and bonding characteristics in controlling chemical durability of lanthanide zirconates.  相似文献   
2.
海南小型露天采石场矿山数量多且呈遍地开花式分布,且不规范的开采对环境造成较大的破坏,与绿色矿山之路背道而行,相对大型矿山规范化的治理,小型矿山治理比较滞后,本文以日富采石场地质环境治理为例,通过摸清当地的地质环境条件,结合矿山现状,因地制宜地制定出日富采石场地质环境治理的具体措施,通过治理可获得林地2.6hm2,矿山安全隐患及地貌景观等矿山地质环境问题得到有效地防治,有效解决农业灌溉及周边虾塘养殖用水缺乏问题,实现较好的社会经济效益,为今后治理类似矿山提供参考。  相似文献   
3.
The effect of ammonia (NH3) contained in hydrogen (H2) gas on hydrogen environment embrittlement (HEE) of SCM440 low-alloy steel was studied in association with the NH3 concentration, loading rate, and gas pressure. NH3 worked as both mitigator of the HEE and inducer of hydrogen embrittlement (HE) depending on the testing conditions. The mitigation of the HEE was achieved by the deactivation of the iron (Fe) surface for H2 dissociation caused by the preferential adsorption of NH3 on the Fe surface, which is enhanced by the increase in the NH3 concentration and decrease in the H2 gas pressure. NH3 induced HE was caused due to creating hydrogen by the NH3 decomposition. Since the NH3 decomposition rate is low, the induction effect was observed when the loading rate was low. The effect of NH3 was determined by the competition of the mitigation and induction effects.  相似文献   
4.
《Journal of dairy science》2022,105(3):2708-2717
Each cow in a group has different nutritional requirements even if the group is formed by cows of similar age, number of lactations, and lactation stage. Common dairy farm management setup does not support formulating a diet that accurately matches individual nutritional requirements for each cow; therefore, a proportion of cows in the group will be overfed and another proportion underfed. Overfeeding and underfeeding cows increases the risk of metabolic diseases, decreases milk production, and increases nutrient waste. Consequently, profitability of dairy farms and the environment are negatively affected. Nutritional grouping is a management strategy that aims to allocate lactating cows homogeneously according to their nutritional requirements. Groups of cows with more uniform nutritional requirements facilitates the formulation of more accurate diets for the group. Current availability of large data streams on dairy farms facilitates the design of algorithms to implement nutritional grouping. Our review summarizes important factors to consider when grouping cows, describes nutritional grouping approaches, and summarizes benefits of implementing nutritional grouping in dairy farms.  相似文献   
5.
The motion trajectory of hydrogen leakage is an essential safe issue for the application of hydrogen energy. A dimensionless fast-running motion trajectory prediction model is proposed to predict the dispersion characteristics of the buoyant jet of hydrogen leakage for the accident. The impact of different leakage angles, leakage velocity and thermal stratification of ambient air on hydrogen leakage behavior was analyzed. The new developed model was verified by experimental results in literatures. Leakage hydrogen can flow upwards freely in a uniform environment. However, it shows an oscillating trajectory at a certain height in a thermally stratified environment, which is so called “locking phenomenon”. The trajectory of hydrogen leakage is upward and hydrogen gathers at the top of the space to form stratification in a uniform environment, while the hydrogen leakage shows an oscillating trajectory at a certain height in a thermal stratification environment. With the increase of Froude number Fr, it shows that the stable height and maximum height of the leakage airflow have a trend of rising first and then falling in a thermally stratified environment. The findings are expected to give guidance in real-world situations, for example, a larger Fr value and a larger temperature gradient can lead to a decrease in the stable height in the thermally stratified environment. It is found that the fitting of the stable height with different temperature gradients satisfies the power function relationship. This work is expected to be helpful for reducing hydrogen leakage accumulation and explosion risk.  相似文献   
6.
《Ceramics International》2022,48(12):16808-16812
Flash sintering has been reported in various ceramics. Nevertheless, anion and cation conductors exhibit different flash-sintering behaviors, and the interaction mechanism between the conductive species and the sintering environment has remained unclear. Herein, we report the flash-sintering phenomena of a typical cation conductor, Na3Zr2(SiO4)2(PO4) with anode region surrounded by air and NaNO3 environments. The results prove that the ionic behavior and joule heating distribution can be controlled by changing the electrode environment. Four possible scenarios describing the ion migration behavior and interaction with the environment are proposed for providing a guidance for controlling the ion interaction behavior during flash sintering.  相似文献   
7.
ABSTRACT

Energetic materials are often disposed by open-burning or open-detonation as it is a cost-effective and efficient means of destroying explosive material, and often minimizes the need to transport hazardous explosives to treatment facilities. This practice is often scrutinized for the negative environmental impact of the odorous and unsightly toxic gaseous emissions as well as the resulting deposition residues, which often contain unburned energetic materials. With the increasing use of Insensitive High Explosive compositions in munitions, it is essential that the potential environmental impact of their disposal is assessed before their extensive use to prevent the kind of contamination incidents experienced with legacy explosives. Therefore, the aim of this work was to develop a controlled laboratory experiment to identify the gaseous emissions and the energetic material residues that are generated through the combustion of the IHE components 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO), 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN), and 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). A sealed vial containing small (mg) quantities of energetic material was heated until the energetic material combusted. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GCMS) was used to calculate the oxygen consumption and to identify the gases that were generated. The solid residues were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify unburned energetic material. Results showed that DNAN was the most resistant to burning, thus leaving significant quantities of unreacted starting material in the vial. An interesting observation for the IHE formulation was that DNAN also inhibited the combustion of NTO and RDX. The gases emitted during the open burning of IHE components and mixtures included CO, CO2, and N2O as expected, but the proportions differed when the components and mixture were compared, reflecting the influence of DNAN on the burning behavior. From our data, we concluded that open-burning DNAN-based formulations is an environmentally unfavorable waste-management practice for the disposal of IHEs mainly due to generation of solid residues as well as unburnt DNAN.  相似文献   
8.
现阶段,为了探索创新性的发展途径,生态环境监测机构应始终增强风险控制意识。应加强风险管理,立足于风险控制,以求不断健康发展。  相似文献   
9.
Qin Yang  Juan Wang  Dan Norbäck 《Indoor air》2021,31(5):1402-1416
Risk factors at home for ocular, nasal, throat and dermal symptoms, headache, and fatigue were studied in a nationwide questionnaire survey in Sweden, the BETSI study in 2006. Totally, 5775 adults from a stratified random sample of multi-family buildings participated. Associations between home environment factors and weekly symptoms were analyzed by multi-level logistic regression. In total, 8.3% had ocular symptoms; 11.9% nasal symptoms; 7.1% throat symptoms; 11.9% dermal symptoms; 8.5% headache and 23.1% fatigue. Subjects in colder climate zones had more mucosal and throat symptoms but less fatigue and ocular symptoms. Rented apartments had poorer indoor environment than self-owned apartments. Those living in buildings constructed from 1961 to 1985 had most symptoms. Building dampness, mold and mold odor were risk factors, especially headache and ocular symptoms. Lack of mechanical ventilation system was another risk factor, especially for headache. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), electric radiators, and crowdedness were other risk factors. Oiled wooden floors, recent indoor painting, and new floor materials were negatively associated with symptoms. In conclusion, building dampness, mold, poor ventilation conditions, crowdedness, ETS, and emissions from electric radiators in apartments in Sweden can increase the risk of ocular, nasal, throat and dermal symptoms, headache, and fatigue.  相似文献   
10.
Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) is a metalloenzyme with high structural stability, but a lack of Cu and Zn ions decreases its stability and enhances the likelihood of misfolding, which is a pathological hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). A growing body of evidence has demonstrated that misfolded SOD1 has prion-like properties such as transmissibility between cells and intracellular propagation of misfolding of natively folded SOD1. Recently, we found that SOD1 is misfolded in the cerebrospinal fluid of sporadic ALS patients, providing a route by which misfolded SOD1 spreads via the extracellular environment of the central nervous system. Unlike intracellular misfolded SOD1, it is unknown which extracellular misfolded species is most relevant to prion-like properties. Here, we determined a conformational feature of extracellular misfolded SOD1 that is linked to prion-like properties. Using culture media from motor neuron-like cells, NSC-34, extracellular misfolded wild-type, and four ALS-causing SOD1 mutants were characterized as a metal-free, disulfide oxidized form of SOD1 (apo-SOD1S-S). Extracellular misfolded apo-SOD1S-S exhibited cell-to-cell transmission from the culture medium to recipient cells as well as intracellular propagation of SOD1 misfolding in recipient cells. Furthermore, culture medium containing misfolded apo-SOD1S-S exerted cytotoxicity to motor neuron-like cells, which was blocked by removal of misfolded apo-SOD1S-S from the medium. We conclude that misfolded apo-SOD1S-S is a primary extracellular species that is linked to prion-like properties.  相似文献   
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