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1.
The effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation, particularly UV-B on algae, have become an important issue as human-caused depletion of the protecting ozone layer has been reported. In this study, the effects of different short-term UV-B radiation on the growth, physiology, and metabolism of Porphyra haitanensis were examined. The growth of P. haitanensis decreased, and the bleaching phenomenon occurred in the thalli. The contents of total amino acids, soluble sugar, total protein, and mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) increased under different UV-B radiation intensities. The metabolic profiles of P. haitanensis differed between the control and UV-B radiation-treated groups. Most of the differential metabolites in P. haitanensis were significantly upregulated under UV-B exposure. Short-term enhanced UV-B irradiation significantly affected amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, glutathione metabolism, and phenylpropane biosynthesis. The contents of phenylalanine, tyrosine, threonine, and serine were increased, suggesting that amino acid metabolism can promote the synthesis of UV-absorbing substances (such as phenols and MAAs) by providing precursor substances. The contents of sucrose, D-glucose-6-phosphate, and beta-D-fructose-6-phosphate were increased, suggesting that carbohydrate metabolism contributes to maintain energy supply for metabolic activity in response to UV-B exposure. Meanwhile, dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) was also significantly upregulated, denoting effective activation of the antioxidant system. To some extent, these results provide metabolic insights into the adaptive response mechanism of P. haitanensis to short-term enhanced UV-B radiation.  相似文献   
2.
In recent years, artificial intelligence (AI) is being increasingly utilised in disaster management activities. The public is engaged with AI in various ways in these activities. For instance, crowdsourcing applications developed for disaster management to handle the tasks of collecting data through social media platforms, and increasing disaster awareness through serious gaming applications. Nonetheless, there are limited empirical investigations and understanding on public perceptions concerning AI for disaster management. Bridging this knowledge gap is the justification for this paper. The methodological approach adopted involved: Initially, collecting data through an online survey from residents (n = 605) of three major Australian cities; Then, analysis of the data using statistical modelling. The analysis results revealed that: (a) Younger generations have a greater appreciation of opportunities created by AI-driven applications for disaster management; (b) People with tertiary education have a greater understanding of the benefits of AI in managing the pre- and post-disaster phases, and; (c) Public sector administrative and safety workers, who play a vital role in managing disasters, place a greater value on the contributions by AI in disaster management. The study advocates relevant authorities to consider public perceptions in their efforts in integrating AI in disaster management.  相似文献   
3.
In this work, we developed a novel system of isovalent Zr4+ and donor Nb5+ co-doped CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) ceramics to enhance dielectric response. The influences of Zr4+ and Nb5+ co-substituting on the colossal dielectric response and relaxation behavior of the CCTO ceramics fabricated by a conventional solid-phase synthesis method were investigated methodically. Co-doping of Zr4+ and Nb5+ ions leads to a significant reduction in grain size for the CCTO ceramics sintered at 1060 °C for 10 h. XRD and Raman results of the CaCu3Ti3.8-xZrxNb0.2O12 (CCTZNO) ceramics show a cubic perovskite structure with space group Im-3. The first principle calculation result exhibits a better thermodynamic stability of the CCTO structure co-doped with Zr4+ and Nb5+ ions than that of single-doped with Zr4+ or Nb5+ ion. Interestingly, the CCTZNO ceramics exhibit greatly improved dielectric constant (~105) at a frequency range of 102–105 Hz and at a temperature range of 20–210 °C, indicating a giant dielectric response within broader frequency and temperature ranges. The dielectric properties of CCTZNO ceramics were analyzed from the viewpoints of defect-dipole effect and internal barrier layer capacitance (IBLC) model. Accordingly, the immensely enhanced dielectric response is primarily ascribed to the complex defect dipoles associated with oxygen vacancies by co-doping Zr4+ and Nb5+ ions into CCTO structure. In addition, the obvious dielectric relaxation behavior has been found in CCTZNO ceramics, and the relaxation process in middle frequency regions is attributed to the grain boundary response confirmed by complex impedance spectroscopy and electric modulus.  相似文献   
4.
Herein, we report effective, C-type lectin mannose receptor (MR)-selective, in vivo dendritic cell (DC)-targeting lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) of a novel lipid-containing mannose-mimicking di-shikimoyl- and guanidine head group and two n-hexadecyl hydrophobic tails (DSG). Subcutaneous administration of LNPs of the DSG/p-CMV-GFP complex showed a significant expression of green fluorescence protein in the CD11c+ DCs of the neighboring lymph nodes compared to the control LNPs of the BBG/p-CMV-GFP complex. Mannose receptor-facilitated in vivo DC-targeted vaccination (s.c.) with the electrostatic complex of LNPs of DSG/pCMV-MART1 stimulated long-lasting (270 days post B16F10 tumor challenge) antimelanoma immunity under prophylactic conditions. Remarkably, under therapeutic settings, vaccination (s.c.) with LNPs of the DSG/pCMV-MART1 complex significantly delayed melanoma growth and improved the survival of mice with melanoma. These findings demonstrate that this nonviral delivery system offers a resilient and potential approach to deliver DNA vaccines encoding tumor antigens to DCs in vivo with high efficacy.  相似文献   
5.
6.
The esophagus is a tubular-shaped muscular organ where swallowed fluids and muscular contractions constitute a highly dynamic environment. The turbulent, coordinated processes that occur through the oropharyngeal conduit can often compromise targeted administration of therapeutic drugs to a lesion, significantly reducing therapeutic efficacy. Here, magnetically guidable drug vehicles capable of strongly adhering to target sites using a bioengineered mussel adhesive protein (MAP) to achieve localized delivery of therapeutic drugs against the hydrodynamic physiological conditions are proposed. A suite of highly uniform microparticles embedded with iron oxide (IO) nanoparticles (MAP@IO MPs) is microfluidically fabricated using the genipin-mediated covalent cross-linking of bioengineered MAP. The MAP@IO MPs are successfully targeted to a specific region and prolongedly retained in the tubular-structured passageway. In particular, orally administered MAP@IO MPs are effectively captured in the esophagus in vivo in a magnetically guidable manner. Moreover, doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded MAP@IO MPs exhibit a sustainable DOX release profile, effective anticancer therapeutic activity, and excellent biocompatibility. Thus, the magnetically guidable locomotion and robust underwater adhesive properties of the proteinaceous soft microbots can provide an intelligent modular approach for targeted locoregional therapeutics delivery to a specific lesion site in dynamic fluid-associated tubular organs such as the esophagus.  相似文献   
7.
Smartphones are a promising tool as student response systems (SRS) for interactive teaching due to their widespread diffusion. Here, the main purpose is to assess the efficacy of smartphone-based SRS in large classroom settings of undergraduate Thermodynamics, as representative of engineering courses requiring high-level cognitive skills for problem solving. Four sets of multiple-choice questions were presented during the course. Overall, the results refer to 1055 students between control and SRS classes, each corresponding to a3 years period.One of the main results of this work is the strong linear correlation between the average questionnaire score and the final exam grade (R2 = 0.91). A similar correlation, although with a lower value of R2, is already found in the first questionnaire, thus showing the SRS high predictive power of class performance. The results of this study provide guidance for a quantitative use of smartphone-based SRS in teaching basic disciplines. The SRS monitoring capability allows early detection of struggling students, thus paving the way to personalized tutoring and improved student engagement in active learning practices. This approach is especially important in emergency situations, such as the SARS-Cov-2 pandemic, when distance learning is widely adopted, and remote interactive tools are highly needed.  相似文献   
8.
A large-scale high-precision scan stage is important equipment in the industrial productions of micro-fabrication such as flat panel display (FPD) lithography systems. Designing controllers for multi-input multi-output (MIMO) systems is time-consuming and needs experience because of the interaction between each axis and many controller tuning parameters. The aim of this study is to develop a peak filter design method based on frequency response data to reduce repetitive disturbance. This data-based approach does not use the model and only uses the frequency response data of the controlled system and the disturbance spectrum calculated from the scanning error data (Contribution 1). The peak filter is designed by convex optimization and satisfies robust stability conditions for six-degree-of-freedom systems (Contribution 2). The control performance of the designed peak filter is experimentally demonstrated with an industrial MIMO large-scale high-precision scan stage in reducing the scanning error of the main stroke of the translation along the x-axis (Contribution 3).  相似文献   
9.
《Ceramics International》2022,48(11):15056-15063
Hydrogen (H2) sensors based on metal oxide semiconductors (MOS) are promising for many applications such as a rocket propellant, industrial gas and the safety of storage. However, poor selectivity at low analyte concentrations, and independent response on high humidity limit the practical applications. Herein, we designed rGO-wrapped SnO2–Pd porous hollow spheres composite (SnO2–Pd@rGO) for high performance H2 sensor. The porous hollow structure was from the carbon sphere template. The rGO wrapping was via self-assembly of GO on SnO2-based spheres with subsequent thermal reduction in H2 ambient. This sensor exhibited excellently selective H2 sensing performances at 390 °C, linear response over a broad concentration range (0.1–1000 ppm) with recovery time of only 3 s, a high response of ~8 to 0.1 ppm H2 in a minute, and acceptable stability under high humidity conditions (e. g. 80%). The calculated detection limit of 16.5 ppb opened up the possibility of trace H2 monitoring. Furthermore, this sensor demonstrated certain response to H2 at the minimum concentration of 50 ppm at 130 °C. These performances mainly benefited from the special hollow porous structure with abundant heterojunctions, the catalysis of the doped-PdOx, the relative hydrophobic surface from rGO, and the deoxygenation after H2 reduction.  相似文献   
10.
The gas purging states affect electricity output and energy storage capacity of unitized regenerative fuel cells. In this study, a model of unitized regenerative fuel cell is established. Cell voltages and operating temperatures influences on the dynamic distribution of thermal fluid during purging process and the discharge of residual liquid water in electrolytic cell mode are investigated. The motivation of the present study is better understanding the gas purging characteristics and its effect on reaction behaviors of unitized regenerative fuel cells. Simulation results reveal a significant influence of purging gas temperature on the water flooding and a great effect of operating voltage on the water diffusion. The operating temperature of electrolytic cell model almost has little effect on purging results at different cell temperature and the same purging gas temperature. When the purging gas temperature is changed, higher temperatures of cell and purging gas facilitate liquid water discharging out from the cell regions. In cell water flooding situation, when having large liquid content, the purging gas has little effects on the water expelling process.  相似文献   
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