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为了减轻因流动加速腐蚀(FAC)引起的锅炉结垢加速、汽水系统管道厚度减小甚至爆裂现象,对超临界机组发生流动加速腐蚀的机理及其主要影响因素进行了研究,并讨论了管壁内表面粗糙度、蒸汽含汽率、pH值、溶氧量对FAC的影响,以及温度与pH值、温度与流速、pH值与溶解氧量、溶解氧量与氢电导率等影响因素之间的相互作用关系,最后结合实际电厂的运行数据验证了分析结果。研究表明:减小工质流速、管壁粗糙度和氢电导率,增大给水的pH值和溶解氧含量可以使FAC的腐蚀速率减小,超临界加氧处理时pH值应在8.9~9.2之间,溶解氧量范围为45~100μg/L,氢电导率的期望值在0.1μS/cm以下。由于各影响因素之间的作用十分复杂,本文只给出了大致范围和趋势,并未给出准确数据。  相似文献   
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《Journal of dairy science》2022,105(7):6094-6110
In recent years, interest has been increasing in whether farmed animals are able to live a reasonably natural life, with one particular area of concern being calf-dam separation. The objectives of this study were to monitor the timing and frequency of suckling behavior of calves left on pasture to suckle their dams for up to 24 h (interquartile range 4.0–15.5 h) and to investigate possible risk factors that may contribute to any variability seen. Over 2 yr, a convenience sample of 8 farms (4 in the North Island, 4 in the South Island of New Zealand) were involved in an observational study where cows and calves were observed for 24 h a day over a 2-wk-long period per farm. During the observation period, farmers continued to remove calves at the same frequency they normally did (which ranged from once a day to 4 times a day). Cows (between 2 and 12 yr old) and calves were observed from a scissor lift in or beside the calving paddock. Cows had numbers written on them, and observers used binoculars and spotlights. Observers recorded the length of stage 2 labor, time of birth, standing, and first suckling, number of suckling events, time of calf removal from the dam, temperature where the cows were grazing, and size of the grazing area they were calving in. Dams were body condition scored before calving, and their age was extracted from farm records. A total of 697 calves were observed during the study. A total of 444 of 697 calves [63.7%; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 60.0–67.3%] suckled in the calving paddock (farm range 40.0% to 90.2%). Of the 444 calves that suckled in the calving paddock, 407 (58.4%; 95% CI 54.6–62.1%) suckled within the first 6 h after birth (farm range 33.0% to 83.6%). Individual risk factors associated with the hazard rate ratio (HR) for time to first suckling event were time to standing (calves who took more than 1.3 h to stand had a longer time from birth to first suckle) and age of the dam [compared with calves that were born from dams >7 years of age, calves born to dams that were 2–3 and 4–7 yr of age had a 1.49 (95% CI 1.07–2.06) and 1.19 (95% CI 0.89–1.60) HR, respectively, for time from birth to first suckle in the calving paddock]. Farm risk factors associated with the HR of suckling were frequency of calf collection [calves that were born on farms that collected calves once a day suckled earlier than calves on farms that removed calves more than once a day (HR 1.52; 95% CI 1.25–1.84)] and temperature [a minimum temperature of <10°C within 6 h of a calf being born was associated with a 0.69 (95% CI 0.53–0.89) hazard of suckling in the calving paddock]. We observed very large farm variability that urgently requires further investigation if pasture-based farms are ever to adopt a system where calves remain with their dams for longer than 24 h.  相似文献   
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The effects of soybean variety and germination time on structural changes, antinutritional factor content, antioxidant activity of germinated soybean, and on the functional properties of soymilk were comprehensively investigated. The results showed that the antioxidant activity increased with increasing germination time. The content of antinutritional factors decreased with increasing germination time. Soybean varieties with the lowest tannin and trypsin inhibitor content were DN690 and HJ1. Lipoxygenase activity and phytic acid content showed no significant differences among soybean varieties. The content of α-helices and β-turns in soybean protein decreased with increasing germination time, while the content of β-sheets was increased. Soybean protein was progressively broken down into smaller molecular peptides during the germination process. The digestion and content of soluble protein in soymilk increased with germination. In summary, we show that germination is an effective, cheap, and green method that improves the functional properties of soybean and soymilk.  相似文献   
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燕麦为西藏自治区典型牧草之一,由于种植区地域辽阔,灌溉试验结果受限,西藏燕麦主要种植区的灌溉定额尚不明确。本文在西藏燕麦主要种植区内选取28个典型站点进行资料收集,遵循农业气候相似原则进行区域划分,基于水量平衡法揭示了西藏燕麦主要种植区灌溉定额的空间分布特征,并根据统计学原理分析了其影响因素。研究表明:燕麦主要种植区的灌溉定额呈由西藏中部至东部呈现先递增后递减的趋势,50%水文年下的燕麦灌溉定额在56~265 mm之间变化。降雨量是影响研究区内燕麦灌溉定额的主要因素(R2为0.515),ET0次之(R2为0.152);其它气象因素中,日照时数对研究区燕麦灌溉定额影响较大(R2为0.462),且呈正相关关系;相对湿度对燕麦灌溉定额影响较小。西藏燕麦主要种植区的灌溉定额及其空间分布可为西藏自治区灌溉用水管理提供支撑。  相似文献   
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开展爆破工程安全评价可有效地减少各种危险和有害因素 ,减少爆破事故的发生 ,大型或特殊爆破工程均应进行安全评价。本文提出了对爆破工程开展安全评价的设想 ,并对爆破工程安全评价的内容和方法进行了探讨。文中指出 :根据爆破工程的特点 ,可采用事故树分析和预先危险性分析等方法进行爆破工程的安全评价  相似文献   
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目的 了解武汉市一般人群血清中全氟及多氟烷基化合物(PFASs)浓度,探索血清中PFASs浓度水平的影响因素。方法 以在武汉市某医院进行一般体检的人群为研究对象(n=67),通过超高效液相色谱-三重四级杆质谱(UPLC-TQ/MS)联用仪测定外周血清中12种PFASs浓度,采用多元线性回归分析方法分析一般人口学特征和血清中PFASs浓度的关联性。结果 武汉市一般人群血清中12种PFASs的平均浓度水平为11.60 ng/mL。全氟辛烷磺酸及其盐类(PFOS)和全氟辛酸及其盐类(PFOA)的贡献率较大,分别为45.03%和31.86%。男性人群血清中PFOS、PFOA、全氟己基磺酸(PFHxS)、全氟壬酸(PFNA)等主要化合物的浓度高于女性,其β值(95%可信区间)分别为0.708(0.313,1.104)、0.518(0.069,0.967)、0.724(0.388,1.059)和0.684(0.399,0.968)。同时,发现血清中PFOS、PFHxS、PFNA浓度和年龄呈正相关,其β值(95%可信区间)分别为0.062(0.042,0.081)、0.035(0.019,0.052)和0.030(0.016,0.045)。结论 性别和年龄对血清中PFASs浓度有影响,在进行人体PFASs暴露评估中应考虑这些因素。  相似文献   
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针对热液白云岩展布非均质性强的问题,开展基底断裂与茅三段沉积演化关系研究,分析断裂样式与白云岩分布关系,建立沉积演化模式,预测白云岩的分布。研究结果表明:茅三段可划分为5个小层,1~3小层为白云岩发育主要时期,4~5小层为台地均一化时期,不发育白云岩;15-1、15-2和16号基底断裂控制了早期“台-洼”相间的沉积地貌,断裂附近的地貌高部位为生屑滩发育有利部位,为白云岩的发育提供物质基础;15-1、15-2号基底断裂样式为花状,周边生屑滩白云石化程度高,为白云岩发育最有利区;16号基底断裂为直立状,附近白云石化发育程度较低,为白云岩发育较有利区。研究成果可为热液白云岩领域的进一步勘探提供指导依据。  相似文献   
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