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1.
This paper focuses on the configuration design of flexure hinges with a prescribed compliance matrix and preset rotational center position. A new method for the topology optimization of flexure hinges is proposed based on the adaptive spring model and stress constraint. The hinge optimization model is formulated by maximizing the bending displacement with a spring while optimizing the compliance matrix to a prescribed value. To avoid numerical instability, an artificial spring is used as an auxiliary calculation, and a new strategy is developed for adaptively adjusting the spring stiffness according to the prescribed compliance matrix. The maximum stress of flexure hinge is limited by using a normalized P-norm of the effective von Mises stress, and a position constraint of rotational center is proposed to predetermine the position of the rotational center. In addition, to reduce the error of the stress measurement, a simple but effective filtering method is presented to obtain a complete black-and-white design. Numerical examples are used to verify the proposed method. Topology results show that the obtained flexure hinges have the prescribed compliance matrix and preset rotational center position while also meeting the stress requirements.  相似文献   
2.
Smartphones are being used and relied on by people more than ever before. The open connectivity brings with it great convenience and leads to a variety of risks that cannot be overlooked. Smartphone vendors, security policy designers, and security application providers have put a variety of practical efforts to secure smartphones, and researchers have conducted extensive research on threat sources, security techniques, and user security behaviors. Regrettably, smartphone users do not pay enough attention to mobile security, making many efforts futile. This study identifies this gap between technology affordance and user requirements, and attempts to investigate the asymmetric perceptions toward security features between developers and users, between users and users, as well as between different security features. These asymmetric perceptions include perceptions of quality, perceptions of importance, and perceptions of satisfaction. After scoping the range of smartphone security features, this study conducts an improved Kano-based method and exhaustively analyzes the 245 collected samples using correspondence analysis and importance satisfaction analysis. The 14 security features of the smartphone are divided into four Kano quality types and the perceived quality differences between developers and users are compared. Correspondence analysis is utilized to capture the relationship between the perceived importance of security features across different groups of respondents, and results of importance-satisfaction analysis provide the basis for the developmental path and resource reallocation strategy of security features. This article offers new insights for researchers as well as practitioners of smartphone security.  相似文献   
3.
Calmodulin (CaM) is an important intracellular protein that binds Ca2+ and functions as a critical second messenger involved in numerous biological activities through extensive interactions with proteins and peptides. CaM’s ability to adapt to binding targets with different structures is related to the flexible central helix separating the N- and C-terminal lobes, which allows for conformational changes between extended and collapsed forms of the protein. CaM-binding targets are most often identified using prediction algorithms that utilize sequence and structural data to predict regions of peptides and proteins that can interact with CaM. In this review, we provide an overview of different CaM-binding proteins, the motifs through which they interact with CaM, and shared properties that make them good binding partners for CaM. Additionally, we discuss the historical and current methods for predicting CaM binding, and the similarities and differences between these methods and their relative success at prediction. As new CaM-binding proteins are identified and classified, we will gain a broader understanding of the biological processes regulated through changes in Ca2+ concentration through interactions with CaM.  相似文献   
4.
Sialidosis, caused by a genetic deficiency of the lysosomal sialidase gene (NEU1), is a systemic disease involving various tissues and organs, including the nervous system. Understanding the neurological dysfunction and pathology associated with sialidosis remains a challenge, partially due to the lack of a human model system. In this study, we have generated two types of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with sialidosis-specific NEU1G227R and NEU1V275A/R347Q mutations (sialidosis-iPSCs), and further differentiated them into neural precursor cells (iNPCs). Characterization of NEU1G227R- and NEU1V275A/R347Q- mutated iNPCs derived from sialidosis-iPSCs (sialidosis-iNPCs) validated that sialidosis-iNPCs faithfully recapitulate key disease-specific phenotypes, including reduced NEU1 activity and impaired lysosomal and autophagic function. In particular, these cells showed defective differentiation into oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, while their neuronal differentiation was not notably affected. Importantly, we found that the phenotypic defects of sialidosis-iNPCs, such as impaired differentiation capacity, could be effectively rescued by the induction of autophagy with rapamycin. Our results demonstrate the first use of a sialidosis-iNPC model with NEU1G227R- and NEU1V275A/R347Q- mutation(s) to study the neurological defects of sialidosis, particularly those related to a defective autophagy–lysosome pathway, and may help accelerate the development of new drugs and therapeutics to combat sialidosis and other LSDs.  相似文献   
5.
A numerical model is developed for surface crack propagation in brittle ceramic coatings, aiming at the intrinsic failure of rare-earth silicate environmental barrier coating systems (EBCs) under combustion conditions in advanced gas turbines. The main features of progressive degradation of EBCs in such conditions are captured, including selective silica vaporization in the top coat due to exposure to water vapor, diffusion path-dependent bond coat oxidation, as well as crack propagation during cyclic thermal loading. In light of these features, user-defined subroutines are implemented in finite element analysis, where surface crack growth is simulated by node separation. Numerical results are validated by existing experimental data, in terms of monosilicate layer thickening, thermal oxide growth, and fracture behaviors. The experimentally observed quasi-linear oxidation in the early stage is also elucidated. Furthermore, it is suggested that surface crack undergoes rapid propagation in the late stage of extended thermal cycling in water vapor and leads to catastrophic failure, driven by both thermal mismatch and oxide growth stresses. The latter is identified as the dominant mechanism of penetration. Based on detailed analyses of failure mechanisms, the optimization strategy of EBCs composition is proposed, balancing the trade-off between mechanical compliance and erosion resistance.  相似文献   
6.
《Ceramics International》2021,47(19):27351-27360
A series of xPbO–(45-x)CuO–55B2O3 glasses (5 ≤ x ≥ 40 mol %) were prepared by the melt-quenching technique. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the prepared glasses are found to have amorphous structure. An extensive ultrasonic study has been made to explore the structural role of PbO and CuO in the borate network. Various elastic properties were calculated from the measured data of density and ultrasonic velocity. Ultrasonic velocity and elastic moduli revealed broad humps at about 20 mol % PbO, which are attributed to the borate anomaly. Below 20 mol % PbO, all Pb2+ ions are considered to be entering the borate network as a glass modifier. This results in the transforms the borate network from an open structure to a denser three-dimensional structure due to BO3 → BO4 conversion. Beyond 20 mol, addition of PbO results in the formation of metaborate, pyroborate, and orthoborate units with NBOs. This weakness the glass structure and decrease both ultrasonic velocity and elastic moduli. The elastic properties were predicted and quantitatively analyzed by taking into account the effect of boron coordination number on the compositional and structural parameters involved in Makishima–Mackenzie's theory, ring deformation model and bond compression model. An excellent agreement between the computed theoretical and experimental elastic moduli, micro-harness and Poisson's ratio was achieved for majority of samples.  相似文献   
7.
Sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase (SMPD1) is a key enzyme in the sphingolipid metabolism. Genetic SMPD1 variants have been related to the Niemann-Pick lysosomal storage disorder, which has different degrees of phenotypic severity ranging from severe symptomatology involving the central nervous system (type A) to milder ones (type B). They have also been linked to neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson and Alzheimer. In this paper, we leveraged structural, evolutionary and stability information on SMPD1 to predict and analyze the impact of variants at the molecular level. We developed the SMPD1-ZooM algorithm, which is able to predict with good accuracy whether variants cause Niemann-Pick disease and its phenotypic severity; the predictor is freely available for download. We performed a large-scale analysis of all possible SMPD1 variants, which led us to identify protein regions that are either robust or fragile with respect to amino acid variations, and show the importance of aromatic-involving interactions in SMPD1 function and stability. Our study also revealed a good correlation between SMPD1-ZooM scores and in vitro loss of SMPD1 activity. The understanding of the molecular effects of SMPD1 variants is of crucial importance to improve genetic screening of SMPD1-related disorders and to develop personalized treatments that restore SMPD1 functionality.  相似文献   
8.
四川盆地蕴含丰富的致密砂岩气资源,近期利用高精度三维资料开展侏罗系沙溪庙组河道砂体勘探取得突出成效。沙溪庙组河道砂体具有横向变化快、储层非均质性强的特点,因此提高河道砂体的边界识别及其含气性预测精度是致密气地震勘探的关键。通过开展AVO特征低频保护的“六分法”(分类、分频、分时、分域、分步和分区)高保真叠前去噪、近地表Q补偿和OVT域叠前时间偏移等技术攻关,形成了一套针对川中地区侏罗系沙溪庙组致密气藏的“双高”(高保真、高分辨率)地震处理技术,并创新应用“双亮点”属性及多波、多分量砂体含气性地震预测等解释技术,提高了含气砂体预测精度。该技术系列在川中沙溪庙组致密气预测应用成果显著,地震数据频带得到了拓宽,低频信息更加丰富,资料信噪比明显提升,河道边界及其含气性预测的精度大幅提高,钻井成功率超过83%,应用成果有力地支撑了该地区沙溪庙组致密气的增储上产。  相似文献   
9.
平台支持船由于作业需要通常配备有动力定位系统,其在侧推工况下舱室噪声超标较为严重。针对这个问题采用计算流体力学(CFD)方法,得到侧推螺旋桨作用在导管上的脉动压力,并将时域计算结果转换成噪声计算的激励条件。采用有限元(FE)与统计能量分析(SEA)混合方法建立船体中频段FE-SEA耦合模型并建立船体高频段SEA模型,对某65 m AHTS船侧推工况下全频段(63 Hz~8000 Hz)舱室噪声进行预报,分析该船噪声分布规律及主要影响因素。并建立起全船的SEA模型,在中频段对比SEA与FE-SEA两种方法得到的舱室声压级频谱曲线,验证了使用混合模型的必要性。  相似文献   
10.
Canisters with a cast iron insert for mechanical strength and a 50-mm thick copper shell as corrosion protection are planned to be used for disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Sweden and Finland. Chloride can be considered “beneficial”, as it promotes active dissolution of copper rather than passivation (which might result in pitting), but a high concentration of chloride in solution would increase the driving force for corrosion through the formation of soluble copper chloro complexes. Thermodynamic calculations are performed in this study with the PHREEQC software and three of its accompanying databases, and a comparison with experimental data is performed to select the database to be used when evaluating repository performance. The activity coefficient models are given special attention. For the assessment of chloride-assisted corrosion of a KBS-3 canister, chloride concentrations pessimistically up to 5 mol/kg are used (in Finland and Sweden, the groundwater and bentonite porewater chloride concentrations are not expected to exceed 1 mol/kg). The resulting copper solubilities are then considered in different mass transport cases.  相似文献   
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