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1.
在内外层算法的基础上,采用联立方程思想将主塔、侧线汽提塔视为一个整体进行建模,并针对复杂炼油塔的特点对算法提出了改进。首先,由于传统内外层法简化的K值模型对组成的变化不敏感,在处理带有石油的体系时,容易出现迭代次数较多,甚至部分塔板温度更新异常的问题,因此采用了汽相分数加和式推导了简化的K值模型加权因子。其次,借鉴流量加和法思想,规定侧线汽提塔的塔底产品流量作为设计变量,增强了算法收敛的稳定性。为验证改进后算法的有效性,采用不同的算法对实际的常压塔进行了模拟,结果显示改进后的算法适合应用于复杂炼油塔的模拟计算。  相似文献   
2.
This paper presents a fast distance relay for series compensated transmission lines based on the R–L differential-equation algorithm using the theory of equal transfer process of transmission lines. The measuring distances based on the proposed algorithm can fast approach the actual value of fault distance when a fault occurs in front of the series capacitor. When a fault occurs behind of the series capacitor, the fault loop, including the series capacitor, does not match the R–L transmission line model, so the measuring distances fluctuate severely. Based on this, the relative position of the fault with respect to the series capacitor can be judged effectively according to the fluctuation range of the measuring distances, and the accurate fault location can be obtained fast. A variety of PSCAD/EMTDC simulation tests show that the new relay has fast operating speed and high accuracy when applied to the long series compensated transmission lines.  相似文献   
3.
Numerous conceptual difficulties and misconceptions have been reported in the science and chemistry education literature about electrochemistry concepts such as electrolytes, redox equations, and about electrochemical (galvanic and electrolytic) cells. Other studies have considered teaching approaches aimed at improving learning and at overcoming misconceptions. This paper reviews these studies and considers strategies and approaches for the effective teaching of electrochemistry. Then, the review focuses on problem solving in equilibrium electrochemistry, especially problems involving the Nernst equation. The main findings of four studies with Greek university chemistry students, dealing with: (i) algorithmic problem‐solving ability; (ii) practice on problem solving; (iii) the effect of the format of a problem; and (iv) the construction and evaluation of a website devoted to electrochemistry problem solving, are reported.  相似文献   
4.
A uniform solid product layer normally assumed in the shrinking-core model cannot predict the kinetic transition behavior of the H2 adsorption reactions. In this study, the concept of a uniform solid product layer has been replaced by that of the inward growth of solid products on the solid surface. A rate equation is established to calculate the inward growth of the solid product and was implemented into the shrinking-core model to calculate the H2 adsorption kinetics for various shapes of Mg-based materials. The prediction accuracy of the developed model is verified from the detailed experimental data. To account for the external gas diffusion around the particle and the intraparticle gas diffusion, an analytical equation is derived using the Thiele modulus method. This model can be used to analyze various kinetic aspects and to analyze the effect of change in the particle microstructure on intraparticle diffusion.  相似文献   
5.
张迪  杨刚  刘冬鹏  张小玲 《化工学报》2020,71(9):3995-4005
高温热泵可以有效回收工业余热,达到节能减排和保护环境的目的。目前,有关高温热泵技术的研究热点在于寻找一种全球变暖潜能值(GWP)低、使用性能良好的工质,以替代现有CFC-114、HFC-245fa工质。对新型环境友好型工质HFO-1234ze(Z)进行了综述,其GWP<1,临界温度高于423 K,是一种潜在的高温热泵替代工质。总结了近年来国内外学者对HFO-1234ze(Z)的合成技术、热力学性质、输运性质、传热性能等方面的研究,并分析了HFO-1234ze(Z)在高温热泵系统中应用的可行性,认为HFO-1234ze(Z)在高温热泵中具有较好的工作性能和发展前景。  相似文献   
6.
In the first part of this paper, we investigate the use of Hessenberg-based methods for solving the Sylvester matrix equation AX+XB=C. To achieve this goal, the Sylvester form of the global generalized Hessenberg process is presented. Using this process, different methods based on a Petrov–Galerkin or on a minimal norm condition are derived. In the second part, we focus on the SGl-CMRH method which is based on the Sylvester form of the Hessenberg process with pivoting strategy combined with a minimal norm condition. In order to accelerate the SGl-CMRH method, a preconditioned framework of this method is also considered. It includes both fixed and flexible variants of the SGl-CMRH method. Moreover, the connection between the flexible preconditioned SGl-CMRH method and the fixed one is studied and some upper bounds for the residual norm are obtained. In particular, application of the obtained theoretical results is investigated for the special case of solving linear systems of equations with several right-hand sides. Finally, some numerical experiments are given in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.  相似文献   
7.
We deal with the mathematical model of the incremental degradation of the internal coating (e.g. a polymeric material) of a metallic pipe in which a fluid flows relatively fast. The fluid drags solid impurities so that longitudinal scratches, inaccessible to any direct inspection procedure, are produced on the coating. Time evolution of this kind of defects can be reconstructed from the knowledge of a sequence of temperature maps of the external surface. The time-varying orthogonal section of this damaged interface is determined as a function of time and polar angle through the identification of a suitable effective heat transfer coefficient by means of Thin Plate Approximation.  相似文献   
8.
关键词:双相不锈钢; 流变曲线; 本构方程; 热加工图  相似文献   
9.
Agile practices become increasingly popular for projects and project portfolios offering firms a higher flexibility to adapt to dynamic environments. This study investigates the antecedents and consequences of agile practices' relevance for strategy formulation in project portfolio management processes. Building on complex adaptive systems theory, we hypothesize a positive relationship between agile capabilities and emerging strategy initiatives and eventually portfolio success. Agile capabilities refer to both the project portfolio organization's intensity of and competence in applying agile practices. Using a sample of 135 portfolios and multiple informants for each portfolio, the results support entrepreneurial orientation and voice behavior as antecedents for agile capabilities. Furthermore, the findings support an agile portfolio's positive relationship with emergence recognition and overall portfolio success. The findings contribute to the literature by identifying two significant antecedents of agile capabilities as well as empirically demonstrating the positive relationship between agile portfolios and emerging strategy recognition. For practitioners, the study encourages the application of agile practices by stressing the general positive influence of agile capabilities and underlines entrepreneurial orientation and voice behavior as important methods of empowerment for agile portfolio processes.  相似文献   
10.
采用3阶精度的迎风格式及2阶精度的中心差分格式,直接求解二维非定常N-S方程组,研究狭缝节流空气静压轴承压降恢复之后区域的流场特性。使用雷诺方程计算相同位置气膜中心处的流场状态,并与直接数值模拟方法的计算结果进行对比。结果表明:雷诺方程与N-S方程在计算域内计算结果基本一致,两者压力偏差为0.173%,速度偏差为1.217%;流场压力、密度沿气流方向逐渐减小,但在气膜方向几乎不变;流场速度、压力梯度沿气流方向逐渐增加,速度在流场出口处达到最大值;直接数值模拟方法得到了流场的温度变化,即整个流场的温度变化很小,温度整体呈上下高、中心低的分布,而雷诺方程无法计算得出整个流场的温度变化情况;采用雷诺方程计算轴承压降恢复之后区域的流场是合理的。  相似文献   
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