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1.
In this article, pre-assembly hot-press pressure and thermal expansion effects in gas-diffusion layers (GDLs) are addressed to explore the practicalities of the constitutive model reported in the companion article. A facile technique is proposed to include deformation history dependent residual strain effects. The model is implemented in the numerical environment and compared with widely followed conventional models such as isotropic and orthotropic material models. With the normal and accelerated thermal expansion effects no significant variation in stresses or strains is reported with the compressible GDL model in contrast to the conventional incompressible form of the GDL model. The present work identifies the critical differences with advanced and extended variants of the model along with conventional GDL material models in terms of planar stress/strain distribution and the membrane response. Finally, the model is simulated for micro-cyclic stress loads of varying amplitudes that imitate the real working conditions of fuel cell. The inelastic energy dissipation in GDLs is predicted using the proposed model, which is utilized further to distinguish the safe (elastic) and unsafe (inelastic shakedown) operating limits. The inelastic collapse of GDLs is shown to be a active function of high amplitude micro-cyclic load with high initial clamping load.  相似文献   
2.
Electric vehicles (EVs) are considered a promising alternative to conventional vehicles (CVs) to alleviate the oil crisis and reduce urban air pollution and carbon emissions. Consumers usually focus on the tangible cost when choosing an EV or CV but overlook the time cost for restricting purchase or driving and the environmental cost from gas emissions, falling to have a comprehensive understanding of the economic competitiveness of CVs and EVs. In this study, a life cycle cost model for vehicles is conducted to express traffic and environmental policies in monetary terms, which are called intangible cost and external cost, respectively. Battery electric vehicles (BEVs), fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs), and CVs are compared in four first-tier, four new first-tier, and 4 s-tier and below cities in China. The comparison shows that BEVs and FCEVs in most cities are incomparable with CVs in terms of tangible cost. However, the prominent traffic and environmental policies in first-tier cities, especially in Beijing and Shanghai, greatly increase the intangible and external costs of CVs, making consumers more inclined to purchase BEVs and FCEVs. The main policy benefits of BEVs and FCEVs come from three aspects: government subsidies, purchase and driving restrictions, and environmental taxes. With the predictable reduction in government subsidies, traffic and environmental policies present important factors influencing the competitiveness of BEVs and FCEVs. In first-tier cities, BEVs and FCEVs already have a competitive foundation for large-scale promotion. In new first-tier and second-tier and below cities, stricter traffic and environmental policies need to be formulated to offset the negative impact of the reduction in government subsidies on the competitiveness of BEVs and FCEVs. Additionally, a sensitivity analysis reveals that increasing the mileage and reducing fuel prices can significantly improve the competitiveness of BEVs and FCEVs, respectively.  相似文献   
3.
杨乾  范存斐  王毅  任亚琳  毕阳 《食品科学》2021,42(1):243-249
目的:研究抗坏血酸(ascorbic acid,AsA)-还原型谷胱甘肽(reduced glutathione,GSH)循环代谢在水杨酸处理采后甜瓜诱导的过量H2O2清除过程中的作用。方法:用4 mmol/L水杨酸浸泡‘玉金香’厚皮甜瓜10 min,测定处理后果实常温贮藏过程中丙二醛(malondialdehyde,MDA)含量,分析活性氧的积累水平、超氧化物歧化酶(superoxide dismutase,SOD)和过氧化氢酶(catalase,CAT)活力,以及AsA-GSH循环过程相关酶活力及产物和底物含量。结果:水杨酸处理降低了果实MDA含量,第10天处理组MDA含量较对照组降低14.6%;显著提高了果实O2-·的产生速率和H2O2含量(P<0.05),其中处理后第2天O2-·的产生速率高出同期对照组的1.9 倍,第6天H2O2含量高出对照组果实29.7%;提高了果实SOD活力,但抑制了CAT活力,说明H2O2的清除可能是依赖于除酶促系统外的其他系统。此外,水杨酸处理提高了果实抗坏血酸过氧化物酶、单脱氢抗坏血酸过氧化物酶、脱氢抗坏血酸还原酶和谷胱甘肽还原酶的活力,增加了AsA和氧化型谷胱甘肽的含量,降低了脱氢抗坏血酸和GSH的含量。结论:水杨酸处理诱导了厚皮甜瓜果实的氧爆,抑制了MDA产生,由水杨酸诱导产生的过量H2O2主要依靠AsA-GSH循环系统清除。  相似文献   
4.
In this present work, the effect of lanthanum oxides (La2O3) on the thermal cycle behavior of TBC coatings and mechanical properties such as adhesion strength and microhardness of 8% Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (8YSZ) TBCs were investigated. CoNiCrAlY and aluminium alloy (Al–13%Si) were used as bond coat and substrate materials. 8YSZ and different wt % of La2O3 (10, 20, and 30%) top coatings were applied using the atmospheric plasma spray (APS) method. The thermal cycling test for TBC coated samples were conducted at 800 °C in the electric furnace. The XRD pattern shows that the La2O3 doped 8YSZ material transformed to cubic pyrochloric structured La2Zr2O7 during thermal cycling. Further, the Taguchi-based grey relation analysis (GRA) method was applied to optimize the TBC coating parameters to achieve better mechanical properties such as adhesion strength and microhardness. And the optimized La2O3/8YSZ TBC coating was coated on CRDI engine combustion chamber components. The engine was tested with microalgae biodiesel and hydrogen, and the results were promising for the TBC-coated engine. The engine performance increased while using La2O3/8YSZ coated components, and the emissions from engine exhaust gas such as CO, HC, and smoke reduced considerably. It was found that there was no separation crack and spallation of the coating layer in the microstructure. Ultimately, the microstructural analysis of the optimized TBC coated piston sample after 50 h of running in the diesel engine confirmed that the developed coating had a superior thermal insulation effect and longer life.  相似文献   
5.
In this paper, a salinity gradient solar pond (SGSP) is used to harness the solar energy for hydrogen production through two cycles. The first cycle includes an absorption power cycle (APC), a proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer, and a thermoelectric generator (TEG) unit; in the second one, an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) with the zeotropic mixture is used instead of APC. The cycles are analyzed through the thermoeconomic vantage point to discover the effect of key decision variables on the cycles’ performance. Finally, NSGA-II is used to optimize both cycles. The results indicate that employing ORC with zeotropic mixture leads to a better performance in comparison to utilizing APC. For the base mode, unit cost product (UCP), exergy, and energy efficiency when APC is employed are 59.9 $/GJ, 23.73%, and 3.84%, respectively. These amounts are 47.27 $/GJ, 29.48%, and 5.86% if ORC with the zeotropic mixture is utilized. The APC and ORC generators have the highest exergy destruction rate which is equal to 6.18 and 10.91 kW. In both cycles, the highest investment cost is related to the turbine and is 0.8275 $/h and 0.976 $/h for the first and second cycles, respectively. In the optimum state the energy efficiency, exergy efficiency, UCP, and H2 production rate of the system enhances 42.44%, 27.54%,15.95%, and 38.24% when ORC with the zeotropic mixture is used. The maximum H2 production is 0.47 kg/h, and is obtained when the mass fraction of R142b, LCZ temperature, pumps pressure ratio, generator bubble point temperature are 0.603, 364.35 K, 2.12, 337.67 K, respectively.  相似文献   
6.
The aim of this exploratory study has been to investigate the fire properties and environmental aspects of different upholstery material combinations, mainly for domestic applications. An analysis of the sustainability and circularity of selected textiles, along with lifecycle assessment, is used to qualitatively evaluate materials from an environmental perspective. The cone calorimeter was the primary tool used to screen 20 different material combinations from a fire performance perspective. It was found that textile covers of conventional fibres such as wool, cotton and polyester, can be improved by blending them with fire resistant speciality fibres. A new three‐dimensional web structure has been examined as an alternative padding material, showing preliminary promising fire properties with regard to ignition time, heat release rates and smoke production.  相似文献   
7.
This study presents systematic packaging design tools integrating functional and environmental consequences on product life cycle. To design packaging for sustainability, the trade-offs between functional and environmental aspects of packaging throughout the product life cycle should be considered. However, it is difficult for packaging designers to understand the overall trade-offs because the extent of the design consequences on the entire life cycle of packaging and its contents is unclear. We developed two tools for packaging design: the Life Cycle Association Matrix (LCAM) and the Function Network Diagram (FND). The following three steps, based on literature reviews and interviews with industrial experts, were applied. Firstly, we listed the product functions and design variables related to the functions as the attributes allocated to the product life cycle. Secondly, the attributes were connected appropriately based on causal relationships. Lastly, we identified the factors to support decision making in the packaging design procedure. As a result, the LCAM depicts the design consequences on the life cycle, and the FND determines the stakeholders affected by the design consequences. Two case studies were demonstrated to analyze the trade-offs by using our tools. In the case studies, a liquid laundry detergent bottle and a milk carton were redesigned. The tools identified the design consequences and stakeholders affected by the redesign of the usability and protective function for the detergent and milk cases, respectively. The results showed the significance of understanding the design consequences on the product life cycle by integrating the functional and environmental aspects.  相似文献   
8.
The mammalian cell cycle is important in controlling normal cell proliferation and the development of various diseases. Cell cycle checkpoints are well regulated by both activators and inhibitors to avoid cell growth disorder and cancerogenesis. Cyclin dependent kinase 20 (CDK20) and p21Cip1/Waf1 are widely recognized as key regulators of cell cycle checkpoints controlling cell proliferation/growth and involving in developing multiple cancers. Emerging evidence demonstrates that these two cell cycle regulators also play an essential role in promoting cell survival independent of the cell cycle, particularly in those cells with a limited capability of proliferation, such as cardiomyocytes. These findings bring new insights into understanding cytoprotection in these tissues. Here, we summarize the new progress of the studies on these two molecules in regulating cell cycle/growth, and their new roles in cell survival by inhibiting various cell death mechanisms. We also outline their potential implications in cancerogenesis and protection in heart diseases. This information renews the knowledge in molecular natures and cellular functions of these regulators, leading to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of the associated diseases and the discovery of new therapeutic strategies.  相似文献   
9.
10.
The principles and design of “active” self‐propelling particles that can convert energy, move directionally on their own, and perform a certain function is an emerging multidisciplinary research field, with high potential for future technologies. A simple and effective technique is presented for on‐demand steering of self‐propelling microdiodes that move electroosmotically on water surface, while supplied with energy by an external alternating (AC) field. It is demonstrated how one can control remotely the direction of diode locomotion by electronically modifying the applied AC signal. The swimming diodes change their direction of motion when a wave asymmetry (equivalent to a DC offset) is introduced into the signal. The data analysis shows that the ability to control and reverse the direction of motion is a result of the electrostatic torque between the asymmetrically polarized diodes and the ionic charges redistributed in the vessel. This novel principle of electrical signal‐coded steering of active functional devices, such as diodes and microcircuits, can find applications in motile sensors, MEMs, and microrobotics.  相似文献   
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