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1.
Mangiferin (MGF) is a phenolic compound isolated from mango, but its poor solubility significantly limits its use. In this study, MGF was embedded into the inner aqueous phase of W1/O/W2 emulsions. Firstly, the dissolution method of MGF was determined. MGF remained stable in solution with pH 13 at 30 min, and its solubility reached 10 mg mL−1. When the pH of MGF solutions was adjusted from pH 13 to pH 6, MGF did not immediately crystallise, providing sufficient time to construct the MGF-loaded W1/O/W2 emulsions. Subsequently, the MGF-loaded W1/O/W2 emulsions were constructed using polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) and calcium caseinate (CAS). The formation and stability of the W1/O/W2 emulsions were investigated. The MGF-loaded W1/O/W2 emulsions stabilised with 1% PGPR and 1% – 3% CAS exhibited a low viscosity, limited loading capacity, and poor stability. Conversely, the MGF-loaded W1/O/W2 emulsions stabilised by 3%PGPR–3%CAS exhibited optimal loading capacity (encapsulation efficiency = 95.31% and loading efficiency = 0.91%) and stability, which was attributed to the fact that high viscosity and gel state retarded the migration of inner aqueous phase. These results indicated that the W1/O/W2 emulsions stabilised by PGPR and CAS may be a potential alternative for encapsulating mangiferin.  相似文献   
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Hydrogen production by biogas conversion represent a promising solution for reduction of fossil CO2 emissions. In this work, a detailed techno-economic analysis was performed for decarbonized hydrogen production based on biogas conversion using calcium and chemical looping cycles. All evaluated concepts generate 100,000 Nm3/h high purity hydrogen. As reference cases, the biogas steam reforming design without decarbonization and with CO2 capture by gas-liquid chemical absorption were also considered. The results show that iron-based chemical looping design has higher energy efficiency compared with the gas-liquid absorption case by 2.3 net percentage points as well as a superior carbon capture rate (99% vs. 65%). The calcium looping case shows a lower efficiency than chemical scrubbing, with about 2.5 net percentage points, but the carbon capture rate is higher (95% vs. 65%). The hydrogen production cost increases with decarbonization, the calcium looping shows the most favourable situation (37.14 €/MWh) compared to the non-capture steam reforming case (33 €/MWh) and MDEA and iron looping cases (about 42 €/MWh). The calcium looping case has the lowest CO2 avoidance cost (10 €/t) followed by iron looping (20 €/t) and MDEA (31 €/t) cases.  相似文献   
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In this work, the longitudinal permeability of squarely packed dual-scale fiber preforms is studied theoretically. These fiber preforms are composed of aligned porous tows and the tows are tightly packed. The effective permeability is calculated as a parallel-like network of intra-tow permeability and inter-tow permeability, which are quantified by Darcy’s law and the inscribed radius between tows, respectively. The jump velocity at the interface between inter-tow fluids and porous tows is considered, as derived by substituting Beavers and Joseph’s correlation into Brinkman’s equation. We further examine the effects of intra-tow permeability on the effective permeability of the fibrous system with three interface conditions: (1) interface velocity = 0, (2) interface velocity = mean intra-tow velocity, and (3) interface velocity = jump velocity. The jump-velocity-based model is found to be closest to numerical data. The influence of the fiber volume fraction of tows on the effective permeability is also analyzed.  相似文献   
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The main objective of the present work is to improve the performance of bonded joints in carbon fiber composite structures through introducing Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) into Epocast 50-A1/946 epoxy, which was primarily developed for joining and repairing of composite aircraft structures. Results from tension characterizations of structural adhesive joints (SAJs) with different scarf angles (5–45°) showed improvement up to 40% compared to neat epoxy (NE)–SAJs. Special attention was considered to investigate the performance of SAJs with 5° scarf angle under different environments. The tensile strength and stiffness of both NE-SAJs and MWCNT/E-SAJs were dramatically decreased at elevated temperature. Water absorption showed a marginal drop of about 2.0% in the tensile strength of the moist SAJs compared to the dry one. Cracks initiation and propagation were detected effectively using instrumented-SAJs with eight strain gauges. The experimental results agree well with the predicted using three-dimensional finite element analysis model.  相似文献   
8.
This paper presents the Kriging model approach for stochastic free vibration analysis of composite shallow doubly curved shells. The finite element formulation is carried out considering rotary inertia and transverse shear deformation based on Mindlin’s theory. The stochastic natural frequencies are expressed in terms of Kriging surrogate models. The influence of random variation of different input parameters on the output natural frequencies is addressed. The sampling size and computational cost is reduced by employing the present method compared to direct Monte Carlo simulation. The convergence studies and error analysis are carried out to ensure the accuracy of present approach. The stochastic mode shapes and frequency response function are also depicted for a typical laminate configuration. Statistical analysis is presented to illustrate the results using Kriging model and its performance.  相似文献   
9.
Various methods have been developed to monitor the health and strain state of carbon fiber reinforced polymers, each with a unique set of pros and cons. This research assesses the use of piezoresistive sensors for in situ strain measurement of carbon fiber and other composite structures in multidirectional laminates. The piezoresistive sensor material and the embedded circuitry are both evaluated. For the piezoresistive sensor, a conductive nickel nanocomposite sensor is compared with the piezoresistivity of the carbon fiber itself. For the circuit, the use of carbon fibers already present in the structure is compared with the use of nickel coated carbon fiber. Successful localized strain sensing is demonstrated for several sensor and circuitry configurations. Numerous engineering applications are possible in the ever-growing field of carbon-composites.  相似文献   
10.
Microwave irradiation has been proven to be an effective heating source in synthetic chemistry, and can accelerate the reaction rate, provide more uniform heating and help in developing better synthetic routes for the fabrication of bone-grafting implant materials. In this study, a new technique, which comprises microwave heating and powder metallurgy for in situ synthesis of Ti/CaP composites by using Ti powders, calcium carbonate (CaCO3) powders and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (CaHPO4·2H2O) powders, has been developed. Three different compositions of Ti:CaCO3:CaHPO4·2H2O powdered mixture were employed to investigate the effect of the starting atomic ratio of the CaCO3 to CaHPO4·2H2O on the phase, microstructural formation and compressive properties of the microwave synthesized composites. When the starting atomic ratio reaches 1.67, composites containing mainly alpha-titanium (α-Ti), hydroxyapatite (HA), beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and calcium titanate (CaTiO3) with porosity of 26%, pore size up to 152 μm, compressive strength of 212 MPa and compressive modulus of 12 GPa were formed. The in vitro apatite-forming capability of the composite was evaluated by immersing the composite into a simulated body fluid (SBF) for up to 14 days. The results showed that biodissolution occurred, followed by apatite precipitation after immersion in the SBF, suggesting that the composites are suitable for bone implant applications as apatite is an essential intermediate layer for bone cells attachment. The quantity and size of the apatite globules increased over the immersion time. After 14 days of immersion, the composite surface was fully covered by an apatite layer with a Ca/P atomic ratio approximately of 1.68, which is similar to the bone-like apatite appearing in human hard tissue. The results suggested that the microwave assisted-in situ synthesis technique can be used as an alternative to traditional powder metallurgy for the fabrication of Ti/CaP biocomposites.  相似文献   
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