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1.
Calmodulin (CaM) is an important intracellular protein that binds Ca2+ and functions as a critical second messenger involved in numerous biological activities through extensive interactions with proteins and peptides. CaM’s ability to adapt to binding targets with different structures is related to the flexible central helix separating the N- and C-terminal lobes, which allows for conformational changes between extended and collapsed forms of the protein. CaM-binding targets are most often identified using prediction algorithms that utilize sequence and structural data to predict regions of peptides and proteins that can interact with CaM. In this review, we provide an overview of different CaM-binding proteins, the motifs through which they interact with CaM, and shared properties that make them good binding partners for CaM. Additionally, we discuss the historical and current methods for predicting CaM binding, and the similarities and differences between these methods and their relative success at prediction. As new CaM-binding proteins are identified and classified, we will gain a broader understanding of the biological processes regulated through changes in Ca2+ concentration through interactions with CaM.  相似文献   
2.
《Journal of dairy science》2022,105(4):3176-3191
Milk concentrates are used in the manufacturing of dairy products such as yogurt and cheese or are processed into milk powder. Processes for the nonthermal separation of water and valuable milk ingredients are becoming increasingly widespread at farm level. The technical barriers to using farm-manufactured milk concentrate in dairies are minimal, hence the suspicion that the practice of on-farm raw milk concentration is still fairly uncommon for economic reasons. This study, therefore, set out to investigate farmers' potential willingness to adopt a raw milk concentration plant. The empirical analysis was based on discrete choice experiments with 75 German dairy farmers to identify preferences and the possible adoption of on-farm raw milk concentration. The results showed that, in particular, farmers who deemed the current milk price to be insufficient viewed on-farm concentration using membrane technology as an option for diversifying their milk sales. We found no indication that adoption would be impeded by a lack of trustworthy information on milk processing technologies or capital.  相似文献   
3.
Reliability based criteria are quite popular for optimal sensor network design. We present a modified definition of system reliability for sensor network design for two applications: reliable estimation of variables in a steady state linear flow process, and reliable fault detection and diagnosis for any process. Unlike the weakest-link based definition of system reliability in the literature, the proposed definition considers the entire system and is consistent with the reliability concept used in classical reliability literature. For each application, dual approaches for defining system reliability are proposed, and their analogy with the reliability problem in the classical reliability literature is established. Using examples and stochastic simulations, the advantage of using the proposed system reliability in contrast to the existing definition is illustrated. Part II of this series of articles presents methods for efficient generation of the system reliability function and its use in optimization-based approaches for designing optimal sensor networks.  相似文献   
4.
提出一种基于随机光栅与高反射布拉格光栅(FBG)相结合的可调谐随机光纤激光器。利用980nm泵浦光源泵浦一段7m长的掺铒光纤(EDF)进行增益放大,由随机光栅提供随机反馈。随机光栅长7cm,具有约10000个折射率修改点,这些点由飞秒激光逐点写入,并沿光纤方向随机分布,两点相邻间隔小于10μm。同时,利用中心波长为1548nm的高反射FBG来组成半开放腔结构,实现了随机激光的输出。实验测得的泵浦阈值功率仅为18mW,斜率效率高达13.2%,并通过改变FBG的中心波长,实现了输出激光波长的可调谐,调谐范围为4.45nm(1548.04~1552.49nm)。得益于半开放式激光腔的设计和EDF的高增益,整个系统具有阈值低、效率高、结构简单等优点。  相似文献   
5.
Lévy flights have gained prominence for analysis of animal movement. In a Lévy flight, step-lengths are drawn from a heavy-tailed distribution such as a power law (PL), and a large number of empirical demonstrations have been published. Others, however, have suggested that animal movement is ill fit by PL distributions or contend a state-switching process better explains apparent Lévy flight movement patterns. We used a mix of direct behavioural observations and GPS tracking to understand step-length patterns in females of two related butterflies. We initially found movement in one species (Euphydryas editha taylori) was best fit by a bounded PL, evidence of a Lévy flight, while the other (Euphydryas phaeton) was best fit by an exponential distribution. Subsequent analyses introduced additional candidate models and used behavioural observations to sort steps based on intraspecific interactions (interactions were rare in E. phaeton but common in E. e. taylori). These analyses showed a mixed-exponential is favoured over the bounded PL for E. e. taylori and that when step-lengths were sorted into states based on the influence of harassing conspecific males, both states were best fit by simple exponential distributions. The direct behavioural observations allowed us to infer the underlying behavioural mechanism is a state-switching process driven by intraspecific interactions rather than a Lévy flight.  相似文献   
6.
This work presents an engineering method for optimizing structures made of bars, beams, plates, or a combination of those components. Corresponding problems involve both continuous (size) and discrete (topology) variables. Using a branched multipoint approximate function, which involves such mixed variables, a series of sequential approximate problems are constructed to make the primal problem explicit. To solve the approximate problems, genetic algorithm (GA) is utilized to optimize discrete variables, and when calculating individual fitness values in GA, a second-level approximate problem only involving retained continuous variables is built to optimize continuous variables. The solution to the second-level approximate problem can be easily obtained with dual methods. Structural analyses are only needed before improving the branched approximate functions in the iteration cycles. The method aims at optimal design of discrete structures consisting of bars, beams, plates, or other components. Numerical examples are given to illustrate its effectiveness, including frame topology optimization, layout optimization of stiffeners modeled with beams or shells, concurrent layout optimization of beam and shell components, and an application in a microsatellite structure. Optimization results show that the number of structural analyses is dramatically decreased when compared with pure GA while even comparable to pure sizing optimization.  相似文献   
7.
1-read/1-write (1R1W) register file (RF) is a popular memory configuration in modern feature rich SoCs requiring significant amount of embedded memory. A memory compiler is constructed using the 8T RF bitcell spanning a range of instances from 32 b to 72 Kb. An 8T low-leakage bitcell of 0.106 μm2 is used in a 14 nm FinFET technology with a 70 nm contacted gate pitch for high-density (HD) two-port (TP) RF memory compiler which achieves 5.66 Mb/mm2 array density for a 72 Kb array which is the highest reported density in 14 nm FinFET technology. The density improvement is achieved by using techniques such as leaf-cell optimization (eliminating transistors), better architectural planning, top level connectivity through leaf-cell abutment and minimizing the number of unique leaf-cells. These techniques are fully compatible with memory compiler usage over the required span. Leakage power is minimized by using power-switches without degrading the density mentioned above. Self-induced supply voltage collapse technique is applied for write and a four stack static keeper is used for read Vmin improvement. Fabricated test chips using 14 nm process have demonstrated 2.33 GHz performance at 1.1 V/25 °C operation. Overall Vmin of 550 mV is achieved with this design at 25 °C. The inbuilt power-switch improves leakage power by 12x in simulation. Approximately 8% die area of a leading 14 nm SoC in commercialization is occupied by these compiled RF instances.  相似文献   
8.
主要探讨了某石化装置蒸汽发生系统的仪表工程设计,提出了复杂控制方案、联锁方案设计,同时也详述了影响系统设计的因素,如测量补偿和迁移等。  相似文献   
9.
王雪梅  倪文波  李芾 《信号处理》2006,22(2):198-202
针对传统的非平稳随机信号时变参数筹分模型算法的不足,论文把非平稳随机信号时变参数差分模型与一种带自适应遗忘因子的RLS算法结合起来,形成一种有效的非平稳随机信号实时建模算法,仿真分析表明该算法不仅能获得快的收敛速度而且能获得高的建模精度。  相似文献   
10.
沈青 《中兴通讯技术》2006,12(3):51-53,60
中国电信企业经过多年的高速发展,逐渐步入成熟期,增长率下降、利润降低将是必然趋势,因此目前亟需探索新的运营模式,向综合型全业务电信运营商的方向发展。法国电信集团历史悠久,市场转型起步早.其发展经验有许多地方值得借鉴,包括法国电信集团具有特色的品牌战咯、灵活的经营模式、为企业提供全方位服务的经营手段。中国电信企业应积极开展全业务经营,加快发展企业网市场,完善合作运营模式,争取早日走向世界。  相似文献   
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