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1.
In this article, pre-assembly hot-press pressure and thermal expansion effects in gas-diffusion layers (GDLs) are addressed to explore the practicalities of the constitutive model reported in the companion article. A facile technique is proposed to include deformation history dependent residual strain effects. The model is implemented in the numerical environment and compared with widely followed conventional models such as isotropic and orthotropic material models. With the normal and accelerated thermal expansion effects no significant variation in stresses or strains is reported with the compressible GDL model in contrast to the conventional incompressible form of the GDL model. The present work identifies the critical differences with advanced and extended variants of the model along with conventional GDL material models in terms of planar stress/strain distribution and the membrane response. Finally, the model is simulated for micro-cyclic stress loads of varying amplitudes that imitate the real working conditions of fuel cell. The inelastic energy dissipation in GDLs is predicted using the proposed model, which is utilized further to distinguish the safe (elastic) and unsafe (inelastic shakedown) operating limits. The inelastic collapse of GDLs is shown to be a active function of high amplitude micro-cyclic load with high initial clamping load.  相似文献   
2.
为了探索三维石墨烯-碳纳米管(G-CNTs)/水泥净浆的压敏性能,采用四电极法研究了荷载作用下GCNTs/水泥净浆的电阻率变化,并分析不同G-CNTs掺量、加载幅度、加载速度以及恒定荷载对电阻率变化的影响。研究表明:随着G-CNTs掺量的增加,电阻率呈先减小后稳定的变化趋势,在G-CNTs掺量由0.2wt%增加至1.6wt%时,电阻率下降51.8%;电阻率与温度呈负相关;G-CNTs掺量高于0.8wt%时可以显著提高水泥净浆的压敏性能,且电阻率变化率与应力应变有明显的对应关系,1.2wt%G-CNTs掺量下试件的应力灵敏系数和应变灵敏系数分别为2.3%/MPa和291;G-CNTs/水泥净浆电阻率变化率幅值随着加载幅度增大而相应增加,其电阻率变化率曲线在不同加载速度以及恒定荷载作用下均与应力-应变曲线一一对应,具有良好的压敏特性。  相似文献   
3.
Mass transfer in polycrystalline Yb2SiO5 wafers with precise composition control was evaluated and analyzed by oxygen permeation experiments at high temperatures using an oxygen tracer. Oxygen permeation proceeded due to mutual grain boundary diffusion of oxide ions and Yb ions without synergistic effects such as acceleration or suppression. The oxygen shielding properties of Yb2SiO5 were compared with those of the other line compounds such as Yb2Si2O7 and Al2O3 based on the determined mass transfer parameters. It was found that the more preferentially an oxide ion diffuses in the grain boundary compared to the interior of the grain, the greater the effect of suppressing the movement of the oxide ion by applying an oxygen potential gradient becomes.  相似文献   
4.
To operate a bag filter continuously, pulse-jet cleaning of dust particles from the filter medium is commonly required, and the pulse-jet pressure significantly affects the filter performance. In this study, the accumulation structure of residual dust particles inside and on the surface of a filter medium at different pulse-jet pressures was investigated by constructing a simple model, and the influence of the dust structure on the filter performance was clarified. Using a simple model, we determined the effective ratio of filtration area β, which represents the ratio of the filterable area to the total filtration area, the true resistance coefficient due to the primary dust layer ζp’ thinly deposited on the filter surface, and the true resistance coefficient inside the filter media itself ζf. The effective ratio of filtration area β decreased with operation time for all pulse-jet pressures; however, it maintained a high value when the pulse-jet pressure was high. The validity of β analyzed by the model was verified using two different methods, and the results showed good agreement, indicating that the model is effective in identifying real conditions. The true resistance coefficient due to the primary dust layer ζp’ decreased as the pulse-jet pressure increased; however, the true resistance coefficient inside the filter media itself ζf’ was the highest at 0.5 MPa. In addition, the dust collection efficiency was different at each pulse-jet pressure, which was considered to be caused by the difference in the dust particle accumulation structure.  相似文献   
5.
Indoor surfaces may be adsorptive sinks with the potential to change Indoor Air Quality. To estimate this effect, the sorption parameters of formaldehyde and toluene were assessed on five floorings by an experimental method using solid-phase microextraction in an airtight emission cell. Adsorption rate constants ranged from 0.003 to 0.075 m·h−1, desorption rate constants from 0.019 to 0.51 h−1, and the partition coefficient from 0.005 to 3.9 m, and these parameters vary greatly from one volatile organic compound/material couple to another indicating contrasted sorption behaviors. A rubber was identified as a sink of formaldehyde characterized by a very low desorption constant close to 0. For these sorbent floorings identified, the adsorption rates of formaldehyde are from 2 to 4 times higher than those of toluene. Two models were used to evaluate the sink effects of floorings on indoor pollutant concentrations in one room from different realistic conditions. The scenarios tested came to the conclusion that the formaldehyde sorption on one rubber (identified as a sink) has a maximum contribution from 15% to 21% for the conditions of low air exchange rate. For other floorings, the sorption has a minor contribution less than or equal to 5%, regardless of the air exchange rate.  相似文献   
6.
Within the framework of the effective-mass approximation and the dipole approximation, considering the three-dimensional confinement of the electron and hole and the strong built-in electric field(BEF) in strained wurtzite Zn O/Mg0:25Zn0:75O quantum dots(QDs), the optical properties of ionized donor-bound excitons(D+, X)are investigated theoretically using a variational method. The computations are performed in the case of finite band offset. Numerical results indicate that the optical properties of(D+, X) complexes sensitively depend on the donor position, the QD size and the BEF. The binding energy of(D+, X) complexes is larger when the donor is located in the vicinity of the left interface of the QDs, and it decreases with increasing QD size. The oscillator strength reduces with an increase in the dot height and increases with an increase in the dot radius. Furthermore, when the QD size decreases, the absorption peak intensity shows a marked increment, and the absorption coefficient peak has a blueshift. The strong BEF causes a redshift of the absorption coefficient peak and causes the absorption peak intensity to decrease remarkably. The physical reasons for these relationships have been analyzed in depth.  相似文献   
7.
Investigation of ink formulation options with the purpose to obtain color-gamut-optimal set of Cyan Magenta and Yellow CMY inks is reported. Implementation of the thickness dependent Kubelka-Munk model on multiple ink layers having different and well-defined thicknesses, provides characteristic absorption and scattering (K, S ) spectra of the ink ingredients. These data enable accurate computation of the reflectance spectrum and thus the L*a*b* color coordinates for any given ink thickness or substrate. Pigment materials investigated are quinacridone as magenta, copper-phthalocyanine as cyan, and arylide yellow. Scaling the peak of the absorption band to the number of molecules per unit area for the specific pigments studied in this article provides the molar extinction coefficients, 1.21 × 104 , 4.7 × 104 , and 3.3 × 104 cm2/millimole respectively, regardless of the different ink formulations used, in accord with Avogadro's principle. Having a set of three pairs of K, S spectra is used to compute the color gamut of any CMY color combination in the L*a*b* space as a function of ink layer thickness and formulation. Using an iterative algorithm, a color-gamut-optimal set of CMY inks is obtained.  相似文献   
8.
《Ceramics International》2022,48(21):31265-31272
Bismuth layer structured Na0.5Bi4.5Ti4O15 (NBT) ferroelectric is one of the most promising materials for potential applications at high temperature. However, it is challenged to achieve a balance between high Curie temperature piezoelectric coefficient and excellent thermal stability for NBT piezoceramics. Here, through chemical modification at the A site of NBT with Ca2+, novel (Na0.5Bi0.5)1-xCaxBi4Ti4O15 piezoceramics with excellent properties fabricated by solid state reaction were studied. After doping of Ca2+, the Curie temperature TC increased from 648 °C to 662 °C while the piezoelectric coefficient d33 increased from 14 pC/N to 22 pC/N which can be attributed to the intrinsic contribution of TiO6 octahedral lattice distortion (tilting and rotation) and the extrinsic contribution of the increased density of domain walls. The composition of (Na0.5Bi0.5)0.95Ca0.05Bi4Ti4O15 ceramics with x = 0.05 has the optimal performance with high TC of 655 °C, large d33 of 22 pC/N, high electrical resistivity ρ close to 107 Ω cm at 500 °C and especially excellent thermal stability of d33 only about 5% reduction after being annealed at 625 °C. The work effectively reveals the great potential of CNBT-5 ceramics for high-temperature piezoelectric applications.  相似文献   
9.
针对气藏型储气库注采井注采过程中储层物性参数影响因素不明确、注采能力不对称的问题。基于相国寺储气库井下连续油管试井测试结果,提出储气库注气期“温降效应”、“变表皮效应”的概念,分析了储气库注采过程中温降效应、变表皮效应以及储层应力敏感对注采的影响。通过气藏型储气库注气期试井分析技术,研究各因素在试井曲线上的响应特征以及对试井解释参数的影响。结果表明:①相对于采气期试井测试,注气期测试得到的储层物性参数具有同样的参考价值;②储气库温降效应对于试井解释结果的影响可忽略不计,而在不同注采运行周期内,变表皮效应以及应力敏感效应影响差异较大;③编制储气库注采运行方案时应充分考虑变表皮效应与应力敏感的影响,在不同注采运行周期内开展试井测试获取准确的储层参数值。研究成果为储气库试井测试与解释提供了重要的研究依据和理论指导。  相似文献   
10.
Geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs), which have a very low permeability to water and a considerably high self-healing capacity, are widely used in liner systems of landfills. In this study, a series of experimental tests were carried out under complex conditions on typical commercial GCLs from China. In particular, the effects of pH values and lead ions (Pb2+) were tested in addition to other factors. The swelling properties of natural bentonite encapsulated between geotextile components in the GCLs were tested first. The swelling capacity was reduced rapidly at pH values < 3 and concentrations of Pb2+ >40 mM. Permeability tests on GCLs with different concentrations of lead ions were then performed by using the self-developed multi-link flexible wall permeameter, and data showed that increases in lead ion concentrations greatly improved the permeability. Finally, self-healing capacity tests were conducted on needle-punched GCLs under different levels of damage. Results showed that the GCLs have a good self-healing capacity with small diameter damage holes (2 mm, close to three times the original aperture), but with a damage aperture larger than 15% of the sample area, the self-healing capacity could not prevent leakage; hence, in certain situations it will be necessary to repair the damage to meet the anti-seepage requirement.  相似文献   
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