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1.
In this work, assembly pressure and flow channel size on proton exchange membrane fuel cell performance are optimized by means of a multi-model. Based on stress-strain data of the SGL-22BB GDL obtained from its initial compression experiments, Young's modulus with different ranges of assembly pressure fits well through modeling. A mechanical model is established to analyze influences of assembly pressure on various gas diffusion layer parameters. Moreover, a CFD calculation model with different assembly pressures, channel width, and channel depth are established to calculate PEMFC performances. Furthermore, a BP neural network model is utilized to explore optimal combination of assembly pressure, channel width and channel depth. Finally, the CFD model is used to validate effect of size optimization on PEMFC performance. Results indicate that gap change of GDL below bipolar ribs is more remarkable than that below channels under action of the assembly pressure, making liquid water easily transported under high porosity, which is conducive to liquid water to the channels, reduces the accumulation of liquid water under the ribs, and enhances water removal in the PEMFC. Affected by the assembly force, change of GDL porosity affects its diffusion rate, permeability and other parameters, which is not conducive to mass transfer in GDL. Optimizing the depth and different dimensions through width of the flow field can effectively compensate for this effect. Therefore, the PEMFC performance can be enhanced through the comprehensive optimization of the assembly force, flow channel width and flow channel depth. The optimal parameter is obtained when assembly pressure, channel width and channel depth are set as 0.6 MPa, 0.8 mm, and 0.8 mm, respectively. The parameter optimization enhances the mass transfer, impedance, and electrochemical characteristics of PEMFC. Besides, it effectively enhances the quality transfer efficiency inside GDL, prevents flooding, and reduces concentration loss and ohmic loss.  相似文献   
2.
Accurate and timely network traffic measurement is essential for network status monitoring, network fault analysis, network intrusion detection, and network security management. With the rapid development of the network, massive network traffic brings severe challenges to network traffic measurement. However, existing measurement methods suffer from many limitations for effectively recording and accurately analyzing big-volume traffic. Recently, sketches, a family of probabilistic data structures that employ hashing technology for summarizing traffic data, have been widely used to solve these problems. However, current literature still lacks a thorough review on sketch-based traffic measurement methods to offer a comprehensive insight on how to apply sketches for fulfilling various traffic measurement tasks. In this paper, we provide a detailed and comprehensive review on the applications of sketches in network traffic measurement. To this end, we classify the network traffic measurement tasks into four categories based on the target of traffic measurement, namely cardinality estimation, flow size estimation, change anomaly detection, and persistent spreader identification. First, we briefly introduce these four types of traffic measurement tasks and discuss the advantages of applying sketches. Then, we propose a series of requirements with regard to the applications of sketches in network traffic measurement. After that, we perform a fine-grained classification for each sketch-based measurement category according to the technologies applied on sketches. During the review, we evaluate the performance, advantages and disadvantages of current sketch-based traffic measurement methods based on the proposed requirements. Through the thorough review, we gain a number of valuable implications that can guide us to choose and design proper traffic measurement methods based on sketches. We also review a number of general sketches that are highly expected in modern network systems to simultaneously perform multiple traffic measurement tasks and discuss their performance based on the proposed requirements. Finally, through our serious review, we summarize a number of open issues and identify several promising research directions.  相似文献   
3.
4.
《Journal of dairy science》2022,105(3):2408-2425
Reggiana and Modenese are autochthonous cattle breeds, reared in the North of Italy, that can be mainly distinguished for their standard coat color (Reggiana is red, whereas Modenese is white with some pale gray shades). Almost all milk produced by these breeds is transformed into 2 mono-breed branded Parmigiano-Reggiano cheeses, from which farmers receive the economic incomes needed for the sustainable conservation of these animal genetic resources. After the setting up of their herd books in 1960s, these breeds experienced a strong reduction in the population size that was subsequently reverted starting in the 1990s (Reggiana) or more recently (Modenese) reaching at present a total of about 2,800 and 500 registered cows, respectively. Due to the small population size of these breeds, inbreeding is a very important cause of concern for their conservation programs. Inbreeding is traditionally estimated using pedigree data, which are summarized in an inbreeding coefficient calculated at the individual level (FPED). However, incompleteness of pedigree information and registration errors can affect the effectiveness of conservation strategies. High-throughput SNP genotyping platforms allow investigation of inbreeding using genome information that can overcome the limits of pedigree data. Several approaches have been proposed to estimate genomic inbreeding, with the use of runs of homozygosity (ROH) considered to be the more appropriate. In this study, several pedigree and genomic inbreeding parameters, calculated using the whole herd book populations or considering genotyping information (GeneSeek GGP Bovine 150K) from 1,684 Reggiana cattle and 323 Modenese cattle, were compared. Average inbreeding values per year were used to calculate effective population size. Reggiana breed had generally lower genomic inbreeding values than Modenese breed. The low correlation between pedigree-based and genomic-based parameters (ranging from 0.187 to 0.195 and 0.319 to 0.323 in the Reggiana and Modenese breeds, respectively) reflected the common problems of local populations in which pedigree records are not complete. The high proportion of short ROH over the total number of ROH indicates no major recent inbreeding events in both breeds. ROH islands spread over the genome of the 2 breeds (15 in Reggiana and 14 in Modenese) identified several signatures of selection. Some of these included genes affecting milk production traits, stature, body conformation traits (with a main ROH island in both breeds on BTA6 containing the ABCG2, NCAPG, and LCORL genes) and coat color (on BTA13 in Modenese containing the ASIP gene). In conclusion, this work provides an extensive comparative analysis of pedigree and genomic inbreeding parameters and relevant genomic information that will be useful in the conservation strategies of these 2 iconic local cattle breeds.  相似文献   
5.
《Ceramics International》2022,48(15):21951-21960
A high surface area is one of desired properties for yttria-zirconia (Y2O3–ZrO2) ceramic materials given their catalytic applications. The objective of this study is to develop high-surface-area Y2O3–ZrO2 materials by silicon (Si) modification and investigate the role of Si. Si-modified yttrium-zirconium hydroxides were prepared via a one-step precipitation process and calcined at 800 or 950 °C to form Si-modified Y2O3–ZrO2 (denoted as SiO2–Y2O3–ZrO2) materials containing 0-20 wt% Si as SiO2. These hydroxides or materials were characterized by 29Si NMR, XPS, TG-DSC, XRD, UV Raman, TEM, and N2 physisorption measurements. Si species uniformly distributed in the hydroxides tended to be enriched on the material surface at high temperatures. These Si species dominated by the silicates blocked the migration of Y and Zr atoms, which resisted the crystallite growth of Y2O3–ZrO2 components and reduced their crystallite size. Therefore, the SiO2–Y2O3–ZrO2 possessed a surface area of 59-112 m2/g after calcination at 950 °C for 9 h, which was significantly higher than that of the Y2O3–ZrO2 (23 m2/g). This study may stimulate ideas for developing high-surface-area crystalline ceramic materials calcined at high temperatures.  相似文献   
6.
《Ceramics International》2022,48(15):21600-21609
Stereolithography (SL) shows advantages for preparing alumina-based ceramics with complex structures. The effects of the particle size distribution, which strongly influence the sintering properties in ceramic SL, have not been systematically explored until now. Herein, the influence of the particle size distribution on SL-manufactured alumina ceramics was investigated, including bending strength at room temperature, post-sintering shrinkage, porosity, and microstructural morphology. Seven particle size distributions of alumina ceramics were studied (in μm/μm: 30/5, 20/3, 10/2, 5/2, 5/0.8, 3/0.5, and 2/0.3); a coarse:fine particle ratio of 6:4 was maintained. At the same sintering temperature, the degree of sintering was greater for finer particle sizes. The particle size distribution had a larger influence on flexural strength, porosity and shrinkage than sintering temperature when the particle size distribution difference reached 10-fold but was weaker for 10 μm/2 μm, 5 μm/2 μm and 5 μm/0.8 μm. The sintering shrinkage characteristics of cuboid samples with different particle sizes were studied. The use of coarse particles influenced the accuracy of small-scale samples. When the particle size was comparable to the sample width, such as 30 μm/5 μm and 5 mm, the width shrinkage was consistent with the height shrinkage. When the particle size was much smaller than the sample width, such as 2 μm/0.3 μm and 5 mm, the width shrinkage was consistent with the length shrinkage. The results of this study provide meaningful guidance for future research on applications of SL and precise control of alumina ceramics through particle gradation.  相似文献   
7.
Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have become the most attractive power supply units for stationary and mobile applications. The operation, design characteristics, as well as performance of PEMFCs, are closely related to the multiphase transport of mass, heat, and electricity in the cell, a critical of which is the gas diffusion layer (GDL). It is very important to guarantee the transmission of water and gasses under high current density, and which is the weakness of PEMFCs at present. Microporous layer (MPL) is considered to be the key variable for mass transfer, so varieties of works focus on modification of MPL materials and its structure design. However, there is still a lack of special review to summarize and prospect the progress of MPL in recent years. This review article therefore focuses on the insights and comprehensive understanding of four critical issues of the MPL, the porosity, pore size distribution, wettability, structural design and the durability of MPL. At last, the conclusion and recommendations section summarized the future prospects and recommendations for possible research opportunities.  相似文献   
8.
提供了一种简便易行的靶面激光光斑尺寸原位测量的方法。从高斯光束的横向光强分布特性出发,建立了激光烧蚀斑半径与辐照激光能量、光斑尺寸、烧蚀阈值间的关系式,模拟分析发现辐照激光光斑尺寸对烧蚀斑半径随辐照能量变化曲线有较大影响。对于脉宽为2 ms,波长为1064 nm的激光,实验测量了不同能量激光辐照下相纸烧蚀斑半径,并用推导出的关系式拟合测量数据,获得了靶面处光斑尺寸和样品烧蚀阈值。同时,也测量了不同位置处的光斑尺寸和样品烧蚀阈值,对高斯光束束腰位置和样品烧蚀阈值的光斑尺寸效应进行了验证。研究结果表明该技术结果可靠,简单高效。该技术可以为高能激光与固体物质相互作用的基础研究和激光加工等应用领域中实现简单方便地测量靶面光斑尺寸提供帮助。  相似文献   
9.
在钻井过程中,常常钻遇不同宽度的井下地层裂缝。钻遇裂缝时容易发生钻井液漏失现象,甚至发生钻井液失返现象,严重影响了安全、高效钻井。目前裂缝封堵的方法常存在封堵成功率不高、堵漏承压能力低的问题,其中一个重要的原因是对井下地层的裂缝宽度等特征认识不清。基于地层裂缝产生的岩石力学机理,确定影响裂缝宽度关键的6个力学和工程因素,并利用神经网络计算的非线性、大数据特点建立了井下地层裂缝宽度的分析模型,模型包含输入层、输出层和3个隐藏层。通过该模型诊断井下裂缝宽度,提高了计算精度,平均误差仅为2.09%,最大误差为5.88%,解决钻井现场仅凭经验判断裂缝误差较大和依靠成像测井成本较高的问题。同时根据神经网络模型诊断得到的裂缝宽度优化堵漏材料的粒径配比,提高了裂缝内的架桥封堵强度和架桥的稳定性,封堵层的承压能力达到12.8 MPa,反向承压能力达到4.5 MPa。现场堵漏试验最高憋压10 MPa,经过封堵作业后大排量循环不漏,达到了裂缝性地层高效堵漏的目的,堵漏一次成功。   相似文献   
10.
Liu  Song  Cui  Yuan-Zhen  Zou  Nian-Jun  Zhu  Wen-Hao  Zhang  Dong  Wu  Wei-Guo 《计算机科学技术学报》2019,34(2):456-475
Journal of Computer Science and Technology - DOACROSS loops are significant parts in many important scientific and engineering applications, which are generally exploited pipeline/wave-front...  相似文献   
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