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1.
High-purity mullite ceramics, promising engineering ceramics for high-temperature applications, were fabricated using transient liquid phase sintering to improve their high-temperature mechanical properties. Small amounts of ultrafine alumina or silica powders were uniformly mixed with the mullite precursor depending on the silica-alumina ratio of the resulting ceramics to allow for the formation of a transient liquid phase during sintering, thus, enhancing densification at the early stage of sintering and mullite formation by the reaction between additional alumina and the residual glassy phase (mullitization) at the final stage of sintering. The addition of alumina powder to the silica-rich mullite precursor resulted in a reaction between the glassy silica and alumina phases during sintering, thereby forming a mullite phase without inhibiting densification. The addition of fine silica powder to the mullite single-phase precursor led to densification with an abnormal grain growth of mullite, whereas some of the added silica remained as a glassy phase after sintering. The resulting mullite ceramics prepared using different powder compositions showed different sintering behaviors, depending on the amount of alumina added. Upon selecting an optimum process and the amount of alumina to be added, the pure mullite ceramics obtained via transient liquid phase sintering exhibited high density (approximately 99%) and excellent high-temperature flexural strength (approximately 320 MPa) at 1500 °C in air. These results clearly demonstrate that pure mullite ceramics fabricated via transient liquid phase sintering with compositions close to those of stoichiometric mullite could be a promising process for the fabrication of high-temperature structural ceramics used in an ambient atmosphere. The transient liquid phase sintering process proposed in this study could be a powerful processing tool that allows for the preparation of superior high-temperature structural ceramics used in the ambient processing atmosphere.  相似文献   
2.
In this study, the separation of hydrogen from gas mixtures using a palladium membrane coupled with a vacuum environment on the permeate side was studied experimentally. The gas mixtures composed of H2, N2, and CO2 were used as the feed. Hydrogen permeation fluxes were measured with membrane operating temperature in the range of 320–380 °C, pressures on the retentate side in the range of 2–5 atm, and vacuum pressures on the permeate side in the range of 15–51 kPa. The Taguchi method was used to design the operating conditions for the experiments based on an orthogonal array. Using the measured H2 permeation fluxes from the Taguchi approach, the stepwise regression analysis was also employed for establishing the prediction models of H2 permeation flux, followed by the analysis of variance (ANOVA) to identify the significance and suitability of operating conditions. Based on both the Taguchi approach and ANOVA, the H2 permeation flux was mostly affected by the gas mixture composition, followed by the retentate side pressure, the vacuum degree, and the membrane temperature. The predicted optimal operating conditions were the gas mixture with 75% H2 and 25% N2, the membrane temperature of 320 °C, the retentate side pressure of 5 atm, and the vacuum degree of 51 kPa. Under these conditions, the H2 permeation flux was 0.185 mol s?1 m?2. A second-order normalized regression model with a relative error of less than 7% was obtained based on the measured H2 permeation flux.  相似文献   
3.
Wind erosion is one of the significant natural calamities worldwide, which degrades around one-third of global land. The eroded and suspended soil particles in the environment may cause health hazards, i.e. allergies and respiratory diseases, due to the presence of harmful contaminants, bacteria, and pollens. The present study evaluates the feasibility of microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICP) technique to mitigate wind-induced erosion of calcareous desert sand (Thar desert of Rajasthan province in India). The temperature during biotreatment was kept at 36 °C to stimulate the average temperature of the Thar desert. The spray method was used for bioaugmentation of Sporosarcina (S.) pasteurii and further treatment using chemical solutions. The chemical solution of 0.25 pore volume was sprayed continuously up to 5 d, 10 d, 15 d, and 20 d, using two different concentration ratios of urea and calcium chloride dihydrate viz 2:1 and 1:1. The biotreated samples were subjected to erosion testing (in the wind tunnel) at different wind speeds of 10 m/s, 20 m/s, and 30 m/s. The unconfined compressive strength of the biocemented crust was measured using a pocket penetrometer. The variation in calcite precipitation and microstructure (including the presence of crystalline minerals) of untreated as well as biotreated sand samples were determined through calcimeter, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDX). The results demonstrated that the erosion of untreated sand increases with an increase in wind speeds. When compared to untreated sand, a lower erosion was observed in all biocemented sand samples, irrespective of treatment condition and wind speed. It was observed that the sample treated with 1:1 cementation solution for up to 5 d, was found to effectively resist erosion at a wind speed of 10 m/s. Moreover, a significant erosion resistance was ascertained in 15 d and 20 d treated samples at higher wind speeds. The calcite content percentage, thickness of crust, bulk density, and surface strength of biocemented sand were enhanced with the increase in treatment duration. The 1:1 concentration ratio of cementation solution was found effective in improving crust thickness and surface strength as compared to 2:1 concentration ratio of cementation solution. The calcite crystals formation was observed in SEM analysis and calcium peaks were observed in EDX analysis for biotreated sand.  相似文献   
4.
Development of efficient, low cost and multifunctional electrocatalysts for water splitting to harvest hydrogen fuels is a challenging task, but the combination of carbon materials with transition metal-based compounds is providing a unique and attractive strategy. Herein, composite systems based on cobalt ferrite oxide-reduced graphene oxide (Co2FeO4) @(rGO) using simultaneous hydrothermal and chemical reduction methods have been prepared. The proposed study eliminates one step associated with the conversion of GO into rGO as it uses direct GO during the synthesis of cobalt ferrite oxide, consequently rGO based hybrid system is achieved in-situ significantly, the optimized Co2FeO4@rGO composite has revealed an outstanding multifunctional applications related to both oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and hydrogen counterpart (HER). Various metal oxidation states and oxygen vacancies at the surface of Co2FeO4@rGO composites guided the multifunctional surface properties. The optimized Co2FeO4@rGO composite presents excellent multifunctional properties with onset potential of 0.60 V for ORR, an overpotential of 240 mV at a 20 mAcm?2 for OER and 320 mV at a 10 mAcm?2 for HER respectively. Results revealed that these multifunctional properties of the optimized Co2FeO4@ rGO composite are associated with high electrical conductivity, high density of active sites, crystal defects, oxygen vacancies, and favorable electronic structure arisinng from the substitution of Fe for Co atoms in binary spinel oxide phase. These surface features synergistically uplifted the electrocatalytic properties of Co2FeO4@rGO composites. The multifunctional properties of the Co2FeO4@ rGO composite could be of high interest for its use in a wide range of applications in sustainable and renewable energy fields.  相似文献   
5.
Micro-cracks commonly occur on the catalyst layers (CLs) during the manufacturing of catalyst coated membranes (CCMs). However, the crack shape parameters effect on CLs in-plane (IP) electronic conductivity λs is not clear. In this work, the relationship between crack parameters and the λs is obtained based on the two-dimensional (2D) multiple-relaxation time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). The LBM numerical model is validated by the normalized λs experiment applied on three different home-made cracked CLs, and the parameter study focus on crack width, length, quantity and phase angle are carried out. The results show that the decrease of λs has different sensitivity |k| to the parameters above. The crack width has little effect on λs decrease, and the |kw| is 0.038. However, crack arm length and quantity show more significant impact, which |kl| and |kN| are 0.753 and 0.725, respectively. The CLs with different crack propagation directions show significant anisotropy on λs, and a 53.53% decrease in λs is observed between 0° and 90° crack phase angle change. To manufacture a high electronic conductivity CL, crack initiation and migration mitigation are highly encouraged.  相似文献   
6.
7.
We investigate synthesis, phase evolution, hollow and porous structure and magnetic properties of quasi-amorphous intermediate phase (QUAIPH) and hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanostructure synthesized by annealing of akaganeite (β-FeOOH) nanorods. It is found that the annealing temperature determines the phase composition of the products, the crystal structure/size dictates the magnetic properties whereas the final nanorod morphology is determined by the starting material. Annealing of β-FeOOH at ~300 °C resulted in the formation of hollow QUAIPH nanorods. The synthesized material shows low-cytotoxicity, superparamagnetism and good transverse relaxivity, which is rarely reported for QUAIPH. The QUAIPH nanorods started to transform to porous hematite nanostructures at ~350 °C and phase transformation was completed at 600 °C. During the annealing, the crystal structure changed from monoclinic (akaganeite) to quasi-amorphous and rhombohedral (hematite). Unusually, the crystallite size first decreased (akaganeite → QUAIPH) and then increased (QUAIPH → hematite) during annealing whereas the nanorods retained particle shape. The magnetic properties of the samples changed from antiferromagnetic (akaganeite) to superparamagnetic with blocking temperature TB = 84 K (QUAIPH) and finally to weak-ferromagnetic with the Morin transition at TM = 244 K and high coercivity HC = 1652 Oe (hematite). The low-cytotoxicity and MRI relaxivity (r2 = 5.80 mM?1 s?1 (akaganeite), r2 = 4.31 mM?1 s?1 (QUAIPH) and r2 = 5.17 mM?1 s?1 (hematite)) reveal potential for biomedical applications.  相似文献   
8.
In recent years, the invert anomalies of operating railway tunnels in water-rich areas occur frequently, which greatly affect the transportation capacity of the railway lines. Tunnel drainage system is a crucial factor to ensure the invert stability by regulating the external water pressure (EWP). By means of a three-dimensional (3D) printing model, this paper experimentally investigates the deformation behavior of the invert for the tunnels with the traditional drainage system (TDS) widely used in China and its optimized drainage system (ODS) with bottom drainage function. Six test groups with a total of 110 test conditions were designed to consider the design factors and environmental factors in engineering practice, including layout of the drainage system, blockage of the drainage system and groundwater level fluctuation. It was found that there are significant differences in the water discharge, EWP and invert stability for the tunnels with the two drainage systems. Even with a dense arrangement of the external blind tubes, TDS was still difficult to eliminate the excessive EWP below the invert, which is the main cause for the invert instability. Blockage of drainage system further increased the invert uplift and aggravated the track irregularity, especially when the blockage degree is more than 50%. However, ODS can prevent these invert anomalies by reasonably controlling the EWP at tunnel bottom. Even when the groundwater level reached 60 m and the blind tubes were fully blocked, the invert stability can still be maintained and the railway track experienced a settlement of only 1.8 mm. Meanwhile, the on-site monitoring under several rainstorms further showed that the average EWP of the invert was controlled within 84 kPa, while the maximum settlement of the track slab was only 0.92 mm, which also was in good agreement with the results of model test.  相似文献   
9.
《Ceramics International》2022,48(15):21483-21491
To battle the high open-circuit voltage deficit (VOC,def) in kesterite (Cu2ZnSnS4 or CZTS) solar cells, a current field of research relates to point defect engineering by cation substitution. For example, by partly replacing Cu with an element of a larger ionic radius, such as Ag, the degree of Cu/Zn disorder decreases, and likewise does the associated band tailing. In this paper, solution-processed (Ag1-xCux)2ZnSnS4 (ACZTS) samples are prepared through the aprotic molecular ink approach using DMSO as the solvent. The successful incorporation of silver into the CZTS lattice is demonstrated with relatively high silver concentrations, namely Ag/(Ag+Cu) ratios of 13% and 26%. The best device was made with 13% Ag/(Ag+Cu) and had an efficiency of 4.9%. The samples are compared to the pure CZTS sample in terms of microstructure, phase distribution, photoluminescence, and device performance. In the XRD patterns, a decrease in the lattice parameter c/a ratio is observed for ACZTS, as well as significant peak splitting with Ag addition for several of the characteristic kesterite XRD reflections. In addition to the improvement in efficiency, other advantageous effects of Ag-incorporation include enhanced grain growth and an increased band gap. A too high concentration of Ag leads to the formation of secondary phases such as SnS and Ag2S as detected by XRD.  相似文献   
10.
A appropriate size with three-dimension(3 D) channels for lithium diffusion plays an important role in constructing highperforming LiNi_(0.5)Mn_(1.5)O_4(LNMO) cathode materials, as it can not only reduce the transport path of lithium ions and electrons, but also reduce the side effects and withstand the structural strain in the process of repetitive Li~+ intercalation/deintercalation. In this work, an e fficient method for designing the hollow LNMO microsphere with 3 D channels structure by using polyethylene oxide(PEO) as soft template agent assisted solvothermal method is proposed. Experimental results indicate that PEO can make the reagents mingle evenly and nucleate slowly in the solvothermal process, thus obtaining a homogeneous distribution of carbonate precursors. In the final LNMO products, the hollow 3 D channels structure obtained by the decomposition of PEO and carbonate precursor in the calcination can provide abundant electroactive zones and electron/ion transport paths during the charge/discharge process, which benefits to improve the cycling performance and rate capability. The LNMO prepared by adding 1 g PEO possesses the most outstanding electrochemical performance, which presented an excellent discharge capacity of 143.1 mAh g~(-1) at 0.1 C and with a capacity retention of 92.2% after 100 cycles at 1 C. The superior performance attributed to the 3 D channels structure of hollow microspheres, which provide uninterrupted conductive systems and therefore achieve the stable transfer for electron/ion.  相似文献   
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