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1.
This study presents an improved mathematical model to analyse the stress wave propagation in adhesively bonded functionally graded (FG) circular cylinders (butt joint) under an axial impulsive load. The volume fractions of the material constituents in the upper and lower cylinders were functionally tailored through the thickness of each cylinder using a power-law. The effective material properties of both cylinders, which are made of aluminum (Al) and silicon carbide (SiC), at any point were predicted by using the Mori–Tanaka homogenization scheme. In this improved model, the governing equations of the wave propagation include the spatial derivatives of local mechanical properties and were discretized by means of the finite difference method. The influence of these spatial derivatives and the compositional gradient exponent on the displacement and stress distributions of the joint was investigated. The material composition variations of both cylinders affected the displacement and stress fields whereas the compositional gradient exponent had a minor effect. The stress concentrations were alleviated in time, the displacement and stress distributions/variations around/along the upper and lower cylinder-adhesive interfaces were significantly affected by the adhesive layer. The spatial derivatives also affected the temporal histories of the displacement and stress components evaluated at the selected critical points of the upper cylinder, adhesive layer and lower cylinder. The consideration of the spatial local material derivatives provided a more accurate mathematical model of wave propagations through the graded layered structures.  相似文献   
2.
Sirtuins (SIRTs), enzymes from the family of NAD+-dependent histone deacetylases, play an important role in the functioning of the body at the cellular level and participate in many biochemical processes. The multi-directionality of SIRTs encourages scientists to undertake research aimed at understanding the mechanisms of their action and the influence that SIRTs have on the organism. At the same time, new substances are constantly being sought that can modulate the action of SIRTs. Extensive research on the expression of SIRTs in various pathological conditions suggests that regulation of their activity may have positive results in supporting the treatment of certain metabolic, neurodegenerative or cancer diseases or this connected with oxidative stress. Due to such a wide spectrum of activity, SIRTs may also be a prognostic markers of selected pathological conditions and prove helpful in assessing their progression, especially by modulating their activity. The article presents and discusses the activating or inhibiting impact of individual SIRTs modulators. The review also gathered selected currently available information on the expression of SIRTs in individual disease cases as well as the biological role that SIRTs play in the human organism, also in connection with oxidative stress condition, taking into account the progress of knowledge about SIRTs over the years, with particular reference to the latest research results.  相似文献   
3.
Adult neurogenesis is a highly regulated process during which new neurons are generated from neural stem cells in two discrete regions of the adult brain: the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus. Defects of adult hippocampal neurogenesis have been linked to cognitive decline and dysfunction during natural aging and in neurodegenerative diseases, as well as psychological stress-induced mood disorders. Understanding the mechanisms and pathways that regulate adult neurogenesis is crucial to improving preventative measures and therapies for these conditions. Accumulating evidence shows that mitochondria directly regulate various steps and phases of adult neurogenesis. This review summarizes recent findings on how mitochondrial metabolism, dynamics, and reactive oxygen species control several aspects of adult neural stem cell function and their differentiation to newborn neurons. It also discusses the importance of autophagy for adult neurogenesis, and how mitochondrial and autophagic dysfunction may contribute to cognitive defects and stress-induced mood disorders by compromising adult neurogenesis. Finally, I suggest possible ways to target mitochondrial function as a strategy for stem cell-based interventions and treatments for cognitive and mood disorders.  相似文献   
4.
The effects of surface and interior degradation of the gas diffusion layer (GDL) on the performance and durability of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have been investigated using three freeze-thaw accelerated stress tests (ASTs). Three ASTs (ex-situ, in-situ, and new methods) are designed from freezing ?30 °C to thawing 80 °C by immersing, supplying, and bubbling, respectively. The ex-situ method is designed for surface degradation of the GDL. Change of surface morphology from hydrophobic to hydrophilic by surface degradation of GDL causes low capillary pressure which decreased PEMFC performance. The in-situ method is designed for the interior degradation of the GDL. A decrease in the ratio of the porosity to tortuosity by interior degradation of the GDL deteriorates PEMFC performance. Moreover, the new method showed combined effects for both surface and interior degradation of the GDL. It was identified that the main factor that deteriorated the fuel cell performance was the increase in mass transport resistance by interior degradation of GDL. In conclusion, this study aims to investigate the causes of degraded GDL on the PEMFC performance into the surface and interior degradation and provide the design guideline of high-durability GDL for the PEMFC.  相似文献   
5.
Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) is a leguminous plant of outstanding tolerance to abiotic stress. The aim of the presented study was to describe the mechanism of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) photosynthetic apparatus acclimatisation strategies to salinity stress. The seedlings were cultivated in a hydroponic system in media containing various concentrations of NaCl (0, 50, and 100 mM), imitating none, moderate, and severe salinity, respectively, for three weeks. In order to characterise the function and structure of the photosynthetic apparatus, Chl a fluorescence, gas exchange measurements, proteome analysis, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis were done inter alia. Significant differences in the response of the leaf and stem photosynthetic apparatus to severe salt stress were observed. Leaves became the place of harmful ion (Na+) accumulation, and the efficiency of their carboxylation decreased sharply. In turn, in stems, the reconstruction of the photosynthetic apparatus (antenna and photosystem complexes) activated alternative electron transport pathways, leading to effective ATP synthesis, which is required for the efficient translocation of Na+ to leaves. These changes enabled efficient stem carboxylation and made them the main source of assimilates. The observed changes indicate the high plasticity of grass pea photosynthetic apparatus, providing an effective mechanism of tolerance to salinity stress.  相似文献   
6.
Laser ablation of high-temperature ceramic coatings results in thermal residual stresses due to which the coatings fail by cracking and debonding. Hence, the measurement of such residual stresses during laser ablation process holds utmost importance from the view of performance of coatings in extreme conditions. The present research aims at investigating the effect of laser parameters such as laser pulse energy, scanning speed and line spacing on thermal residual stresses induced in tantalum carbide-coated graphite substrates. Residual stresses were measured using micro-Raman spectroscopy and correlated with Raman peak shifts. Transient thermal analysis was performed using COMSOL Multiphysics to model the single ablated track and residual stresses were reported at low, moderate and high pulse energy regimes. The results showed that the initial laser conditions caused higher tensile residual stresses. Moderate pulse energy regime comprised higher compressive residual stresses due to off centre overlapping of the laser pulses. Higher pulse energy (250 μJ), higher scanning speed (1000 mm/s) and moderate line spacing (20 μm) caused accumulation of tensile residual stresses during the final stage of laser ablation. The deviation of experimental residual stresses from COMSOL numerical model was attributed to unaccounted additional stresses induced during thermal spraying process and deformation potentials in the numerical model.  相似文献   
7.
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response is an adaptive program to cope with cellular stress that disturbs the function and homeostasis of ER, which commonly occurs during cancer progression to late stage. Late-stage cancers, mostly requiring chemotherapy, often develop treatment resistance. Chemoresistance has been linked to ER stress response; however, most of the evidence has come from studies that correlate the expression of stress markers with poor prognosis or demonstrate proapoptosis by the knockdown of stress-responsive genes. Since ER stress in cancers usually persists and is essentially not induced by genetic manipulations, we used low doses of ER stress inducers at levels that allowed cell adaptation to occur in order to investigate the effect of stress response on chemoresistance. We found that prolonged tolerable ER stress promotes mesenchymal–epithelial transition, slows cell-cycle progression, and delays the S-phase exit. Consequently, cisplatin-induced apoptosis was significantly decreased in stress-adapted cells, implying their acquisition of cisplatin resistance. Molecularly, we found that proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) ubiquitination and the expression of polymerase η, the main polymerase responsible for translesion synthesis across cisplatin-DNA damage, were up-regulated in ER stress-adaptive cells, and their enhanced cisplatin resistance was abrogated by the knockout of polymerase η. We also found that a fraction of p53 in stress-adapted cells was translocated to the nucleus, and that these cells exhibited a significant decline in the level of cisplatin-DNA damage. Consistently, we showed that the nuclear p53 coincided with strong positivity of glucose-related protein 78 (GRP78) on immunostaining of clinical biopsies, and the cisplatin-based chemotherapy was less effective for patients with high levels of ER stress. Taken together, this study uncovers that adaptation to ER stress enhances DNA repair and damage tolerance, with which stressed cells gain resistance to chemotherapeutics.  相似文献   
8.
Chronic stress is a combination of nonspecific adaptive reactions of the body to the influence of various adverse stress factors which disrupt its homeostasis, and it is also a corresponding state of the organism’s nervous system (or the body in general). We hypothesized that chronic stress may be one of the causes occurence of several molecular and cellular types of stress. We analyzed literary sources and considered most of these types of stress in our review article. We examined genes and mutations of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes and also molecular variants which lead to various types of stress. The end result of chronic stress can be metabolic disturbance in humans and animals, leading to accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidative stress, energy deficiency in cells (due to a decrease in ATP synthesis) and mitochondrial dysfunction. These changes can last for the lifetime and lead to severe pathologies, including neurodegenerative diseases and atherosclerosis. The analysis of literature allowed us to conclude that under the influence of chronic stress, metabolism in the human body can be disrupted, mutations of the mitochondrial and nuclear genome and dysfunction of cells and their compartments can occur. As a result of these processes, oxidative, genotoxic, and cellular stress can occur. Therefore, chronic stress can be one of the causes forthe occurrence and development of neurodegenerative diseases and atherosclerosis. In particular, chronic stress can play a large role in the occurrence and development of oxidative, genotoxic, and cellular types of stress.  相似文献   
9.
4-methyl-2,4-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)pent-1-ene (MBP), a major active metabolite of bisphenol A (BPA), is generated in the mammalian liver. Some studies have suggested that MBP exerts greater toxicity than BPA. However, the mechanism underlying MBP-induced pancreatic β-cell cytotoxicity remains largely unclear. This study demonstrated the cytotoxicity of MBP in pancreatic β-cells and elucidated the cellular mechanism involved in MBP-induced β-cell death. Our results showed that MBP exposure significantly reduced cell viability, caused insulin secretion dysfunction, and induced apoptotic events including increased caspase-3 activity and the expression of active forms of caspase-3/-7/-9 and PARP protein. In addition, MBP triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, as indicated by the upregulation of GRP 78, CHOP, and cleaved caspase-12 proteins. Pretreatment with 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA; a pharmacological inhibitor of ER stress) markedly reversed MBP-induced ER stress and apoptosis-related signals. Furthermore, exposure to MBP significantly induced the protein phosphorylation of JNK and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)α. Pretreatment of β-cells with pharmacological inhibitors for JNK (SP600125) and AMPK (compound C), respectively, effectively abrogated the MBP-induced apoptosis-related signals. Both JNK and AMPK inhibitors also suppressed the MBP-induced activation of JNK and AMPKα and of each other. In conclusion, these findings suggest that MBP exposure exerts cytotoxicity on β-cells via the interdependent activation of JNK and AMPKα, which regulates the downstream apoptotic signaling pathway.  相似文献   
10.
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