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1.
The sustainable reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from road transport requires solutions to achieve net-zero carbon dioxide emissions. Therefore, in addition to vehicles with electrified powertrains, such as those implemented in battery electric of fuel cell vehicles, internal combustion engines fueled with e-fuels or biofuels are also under discussion. An e-fuel that has come into focus recently, is hydrogen due to its potential to achieve zero tank-to-wheel and well-to-wheel carbon dioxide emissions when the electrolysis is powered by electricity from renewable sources. Due to the high laminar burning velocity, hydrogen has the potential for engine operation with high cylinder charge dilution by e.g. external exhaust gas recirculation or enleanment, resulting in increased efficiency. On the other hand, the high burning velocity and high adiabatic flame temperatures pose a challenge for engine cooling due to increased heat losses compared to conventional fuels. To further evaluate the use of hydrogen for small passenger car engines, a series production 1 L 3 cylinder gasoline engine provided by Ford Werke GmbH was modified for hydrogen direct injection. The engine was equipped with a high pressure external exhaust gas recirculation system to investigate charge dilution at stoichiometric operation. Due to limitations of the turbocharging system, very lean operation, which can achieve nitrogen oxides raw emissions below 10 ppm, was limited to part load operation below BMEP = 8 bar. Thus, a reduction of the nitrogen oxides emission level at high loads compared to stoichiometric operation was not possible. At stoichiometric operation with external exhaust gas recirculation engine efficiency can be increased significantly. The comparison of stoichiometric hydrogen and gasoline operation shows a reduced indicated efficiency with hydrogen with significant faster combustion of hydrogen at comparable centers of combustion. However, higher boost pressures would allow to achieve even higher indicated efficiencies by charge dilution compared to gasoline engine operation.  相似文献   
2.
ARIMA is seldom used in supply chains in practice. There are several reasons, not the least of which is the small sample size of available data, which restricts the usage of the model. Keeping in mind this restriction, we discuss in this paper a state-space ARIMA model with a single source of error and show how it can be efficiently used in the supply-chain context, especially in cases when only two seasonal cycles of data are available. We propose a new order selection algorithm for the model and compare its performance with the conventional ARIMA on real data. We show that the proposed model performs well in terms of both accuracy and computational time in comparison with other ARIMA implementations, which makes it efficient in the supply-chain context.  相似文献   
3.
Abstract

Model order reduction is a common practice to reduce large order systems so that their simulation and control become easy. Nonlinearity aware trajectory piecewise linear is a variation of trajectory piecewise linearization technique of order reduction that is used to reduce nonlinear systems. With this scheme, the reduced approximation of the system is generated by weighted sum of the linearized and reduced sub-models obtained at certain linearization points on the system trajectory. This scheme uses dynamically inspired weight assignment that makes the approximation nonlinearity aware. Just as weight assignment, the process of linearization points selection is also important for generating faithful approximations. This article uses a global maximum error controller based linearization points selection scheme according to which a state is chosen as a linearization point if the error between a current reduced model and the full order nonlinear system reaches a maximum value. A combination that not only selects linearization points based on an error controller but also assigns dynamic inspired weights is shown in this article. The proposed scheme generates approximations with higher accuracies. This is demonstrated by applying the proposed method to some benchmark nonlinear circuits including RC ladder network and inverter chain circuit and comparing the results with the conventional schemes.  相似文献   
4.
Production planning and control (PPC) systems that employ aspects from both make-to-order (MTO) and make-to-stock (MTS) production control are known as hybrid MTS/MTO systems. While both MTO and MTS separately have been studied extensively, their combined use has received less attention. However, the literature on this topic is growing and this paper shows that the review performed in this paper is an important addition to the field. We categorise relevant literature according to a novel taxonomy and show that hybrid MTS/MTO production control can be used in different contexts. In addition, an overview of the modelling techniques and methods used in these papers is provided. Based on the reviewed literature, relevant research questions and directions for future research are identified. Finally, it is shown that hybrid MTS/MTO production control is prevalent in practice by discussing research with industrial applications. The paper contains an overview of research on hybrid MTS/MTO production control to be used as reference for researchers active in the field, and provides managerial insights and directions for future research on this topic.  相似文献   
5.
When UF6 is handled in leak tight system, the amount of uranium compound formed on the surface of containers, valves, and others in UF6 handling facilities is not so significant for a short term that special attention has not been given to this problem. The present work was done to throw some more light on this problem based on the recent experiment. We discuss the possibility that the intermolecular transfer of a fluorine atom from UF6 to UF5 may participate in the formation of uranium compound. The discussion includes also the unique features contained in the experimental result, the reaction processes assumed in this problem, and the derivation of a rate equation for expressing the deposition of uranium compound. Furthermore, we propose a new method for determining nonlinear parameters included in a governing differential equation having two variables for expressing the deposition of uranium compound from experimental raw data.  相似文献   
6.
The present work reports the realization of an analog fractional‐order phase‐locked loop (FPLL) using a fractional capacitor. The expressions for bandwidth, capture range, and lock range of the FPLL have been derived analytically and then compared with the experimental observations using LM565 IC. It has been observed that bandwidth and capture range can be extended by using FPLL. It has also been found that FPLL can provide faster response and lower phase error at the time of switching compared to its integer‐order counterpart. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
7.
针对现有的基于局部特征的图像匹配算法对光照变化敏感、匹配正确率低等问题,提出一种具有光照鲁棒性的图像匹配算法。首先使用实时对比保留去色(RTCP)算法灰度化图像,然后利用对比拉伸函数模拟不同光照变换对图像的影响从而提取抗光照变换特征点,最后采用局部强度顺序模式建立特征点描述符,根据待匹配图像局部特征点描述符的欧氏距离判断是否为成对匹配点。在公开数据集上,所提算法与尺度不变特征变换(SIFT)算法、加速鲁棒特征(SURF)算法、"风"(KAZE)算法和ORB算法在匹配速度和匹配正确率上进行了对比实验。实验结果表明:随着图像亮度差异的增加,SIFT算法、SURF算法、"风"(KAZE)算法和ORB算法匹配正确率下降迅速,所提算法下降缓慢并且正确率均高于80%;所提算法特征点检测较慢和描述符维数较高,平均耗时为23.47 s,匹配速度不及另外四种算法,但匹配质量却远超过它们。对实时性要求不高的系统中,所提算法可以克服光照变化对图像匹配造成的影响。  相似文献   
8.
An adaptive numerical dissipation control in a class of high order filter methods for compressible MHD equations is systematically discussed. The filter schemes consist of a divergence-free preserving high order spatial base scheme with a filter approach which can be divergence-free preserving depending on the type of filter operator being used, the method of applying the filter step, and the type of flow problem to be considered. Some of these filter variants provide a natural and efficient way for the minimization of the divergence of the magnetic field (∇·B) numerical error in the sense that commonly used divergence cleaning is not required. Numerical experiments presented emphasize the performance of the ∇·B numerical error. Many levels of grid refinement and detailed comparison of the filter methods with several commonly used compressible MHD shock-capturing schemes will be illustratedA condensed version appears in the Proceedings of the International Conference on High Performance Scientific Computing, March 10-14, 2003, Hanoi, Vietnam. This is a revised version of a longer internal report, Feb. 19, 2004. The longer internal report was published as a RIACS Technical Report TR03.10, July 2003, NASA Ames Research Center  相似文献   
9.
在取得土料场土料物理力学性质参数的情况下,遵循碾压试验基本原理、方法及参数组合,进行了现场碾压试验,通过试验成果的分析,得出了大坝碾压试验结论,为大坝土方填筑提供了技术依据。  相似文献   
10.
以草酸乙醇溶液为沉淀剂,采用不同的沉淀次序(并流、反加和正加)制备了CuO-ZnO-Al2O3/HZSM-5复合型催化剂,对CO2加氢直接合成二甲醚反应的催化活性顺序为:并流法催化剂>反加法催化剂>正加法催化剂。3种复合催化剂的还原温度由低到高的顺序为:并流法催化剂<反加法催化剂<正加法催化剂。在沉淀过程中,反加法和正加法均形成类胶体沉淀,相应催化剂的比表面积也较大。IR研究发现,催化剂在1101cm-1处表现Cu/Zn/Al氧化物与HZSM-5分子筛之间相互作用的IR吸收峰强度与其催化活性间存在对应关系。XRD结果表明,并流法得到的催化剂前驱体中有铜锌同形取代现象,有利于催化剂活性的发挥。  相似文献   
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