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1.
The sustainable reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from road transport requires solutions to achieve net-zero carbon dioxide emissions. Therefore, in addition to vehicles with electrified powertrains, such as those implemented in battery electric of fuel cell vehicles, internal combustion engines fueled with e-fuels or biofuels are also under discussion. An e-fuel that has come into focus recently, is hydrogen due to its potential to achieve zero tank-to-wheel and well-to-wheel carbon dioxide emissions when the electrolysis is powered by electricity from renewable sources. Due to the high laminar burning velocity, hydrogen has the potential for engine operation with high cylinder charge dilution by e.g. external exhaust gas recirculation or enleanment, resulting in increased efficiency. On the other hand, the high burning velocity and high adiabatic flame temperatures pose a challenge for engine cooling due to increased heat losses compared to conventional fuels. To further evaluate the use of hydrogen for small passenger car engines, a series production 1 L 3 cylinder gasoline engine provided by Ford Werke GmbH was modified for hydrogen direct injection. The engine was equipped with a high pressure external exhaust gas recirculation system to investigate charge dilution at stoichiometric operation. Due to limitations of the turbocharging system, very lean operation, which can achieve nitrogen oxides raw emissions below 10 ppm, was limited to part load operation below BMEP = 8 bar. Thus, a reduction of the nitrogen oxides emission level at high loads compared to stoichiometric operation was not possible. At stoichiometric operation with external exhaust gas recirculation engine efficiency can be increased significantly. The comparison of stoichiometric hydrogen and gasoline operation shows a reduced indicated efficiency with hydrogen with significant faster combustion of hydrogen at comparable centers of combustion. However, higher boost pressures would allow to achieve even higher indicated efficiencies by charge dilution compared to gasoline engine operation.  相似文献   
2.
中国石化海南炼油化工有限公司0.2 Mt/a C5/C6烷烃异构化装置以连续重整装置的拔头油为原料,使用NNI-1催化剂,采用一次通过流程,不设脱异戊烷塔和稳定塔,经设在连续重整装置内的脱丁烷塔稳定处理后作为汽油调合组分。该装置于2006年9月开工投产,截至2015年3月已连续运行3个周期。长周期运行分析结果表明:前两个周期中NNI-1催化剂具有较高的异构化活性及选择性,C5异构化率为60%左右,C6异构化率为80%左右,C6选择性为15%左右,产品辛烷值基本达到技术指标要求(RON≥78);而在第三周期运行中,催化剂积炭增加等原因导致其异构化活性及选择性降低,异构化产品辛烷值提升能力呈现逐步衰减的趋势,提高反应苛刻度已不能弥补催化剂活性下降造成的产品辛烷值降低。为保证装置长周期运行,建议择机停工对催化剂进行再生,或是直接换用与装置原料性质匹配的异构化催化剂。  相似文献   
3.
ARIMA is seldom used in supply chains in practice. There are several reasons, not the least of which is the small sample size of available data, which restricts the usage of the model. Keeping in mind this restriction, we discuss in this paper a state-space ARIMA model with a single source of error and show how it can be efficiently used in the supply-chain context, especially in cases when only two seasonal cycles of data are available. We propose a new order selection algorithm for the model and compare its performance with the conventional ARIMA on real data. We show that the proposed model performs well in terms of both accuracy and computational time in comparison with other ARIMA implementations, which makes it efficient in the supply-chain context.  相似文献   
4.
Abstract

Model order reduction is a common practice to reduce large order systems so that their simulation and control become easy. Nonlinearity aware trajectory piecewise linear is a variation of trajectory piecewise linearization technique of order reduction that is used to reduce nonlinear systems. With this scheme, the reduced approximation of the system is generated by weighted sum of the linearized and reduced sub-models obtained at certain linearization points on the system trajectory. This scheme uses dynamically inspired weight assignment that makes the approximation nonlinearity aware. Just as weight assignment, the process of linearization points selection is also important for generating faithful approximations. This article uses a global maximum error controller based linearization points selection scheme according to which a state is chosen as a linearization point if the error between a current reduced model and the full order nonlinear system reaches a maximum value. A combination that not only selects linearization points based on an error controller but also assigns dynamic inspired weights is shown in this article. The proposed scheme generates approximations with higher accuracies. This is demonstrated by applying the proposed method to some benchmark nonlinear circuits including RC ladder network and inverter chain circuit and comparing the results with the conventional schemes.  相似文献   
5.
Production planning and control (PPC) systems that employ aspects from both make-to-order (MTO) and make-to-stock (MTS) production control are known as hybrid MTS/MTO systems. While both MTO and MTS separately have been studied extensively, their combined use has received less attention. However, the literature on this topic is growing and this paper shows that the review performed in this paper is an important addition to the field. We categorise relevant literature according to a novel taxonomy and show that hybrid MTS/MTO production control can be used in different contexts. In addition, an overview of the modelling techniques and methods used in these papers is provided. Based on the reviewed literature, relevant research questions and directions for future research are identified. Finally, it is shown that hybrid MTS/MTO production control is prevalent in practice by discussing research with industrial applications. The paper contains an overview of research on hybrid MTS/MTO production control to be used as reference for researchers active in the field, and provides managerial insights and directions for future research on this topic.  相似文献   
6.
Traditional Multiple Empirical Kernel Learning (MEKL) expands the expressions of the sample and brings better classification ability by using different empirical kernels to map the original data space into multiple kernel spaces. To make MEKL suit for the imbalanced problems, this paper introduces a weight matrix and a regularization term into MEKL. The weight matrix assigns high misclassification cost to the minority samples to balanced misclassification cost between minority and majority class. The regularization term named Majority Projection (MP) is used to make the classification hyperplane fit the distribution shape of majority samples and enlarge the between-class distance of minority and majority class. The contributions of this work are: (i) assigning high cost to minority samples to deal with imbalanced problems, (ii) introducing a new regularization term to concern the property of data distribution, (iii) and modifying the original PAC-Bayes bound to test the error upper bound of MEKL-MP. Through analyzing the experimental results, the proposed MEKL-MP is well suited to the imbalanced problems and has lower generalization risk in accordance with the value of PAC-Bayes bound.  相似文献   
7.
When UF6 is handled in leak tight system, the amount of uranium compound formed on the surface of containers, valves, and others in UF6 handling facilities is not so significant for a short term that special attention has not been given to this problem. The present work was done to throw some more light on this problem based on the recent experiment. We discuss the possibility that the intermolecular transfer of a fluorine atom from UF6 to UF5 may participate in the formation of uranium compound. The discussion includes also the unique features contained in the experimental result, the reaction processes assumed in this problem, and the derivation of a rate equation for expressing the deposition of uranium compound. Furthermore, we propose a new method for determining nonlinear parameters included in a governing differential equation having two variables for expressing the deposition of uranium compound from experimental raw data.  相似文献   
8.
For a better translation from treatment designs of schizophrenia to clinical efficiency, there is a crucial need to refine preclinical animal models. In order to consider the multifactorial nature of the disorder, a new mouse model associating three factors (genetic susceptibility—partial deletion of the MAP6 gene, early-life stress—maternal separation, and pharmacological treatment—chronic Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol during adolescence) has recently been described. While this model depicts a schizophrenia-like phenotype, the neurobiological correlates remain unknown. Synaptic transmission and functional plasticity of the CA1 hippocampal region of male and female 3-hit mice were therefore investigated using electrophysiological recordings on the hippocampus slice. While basal excitatory transmission remained unaffected, NMDA receptor (NMDAr)-mediated long-term potentiation (LTP) triggered by theta-burst (TBS) but not by high-frequency (HFS) stimulation was impaired in 3-hit mice. Isolated NMDAr activation was not affected or even increased in female 3-hit mice, revealing a sexual dimorphism. Considering that the regulation of LTP is more prone to inhibitory tone if triggered by TBS than by HFS, the weaker potentiation in 3-hit mice suggests a deficiency of intrinsic GABA regulatory mechanisms. Indeed, NMDAr activation was increased by GABAA receptor blockade in wild-type but not in 3-hit mice. This electrophysiological study highlights dysregulations of functional properties and plasticity in hippocampal networks of 3-hit mice, one of the mechanisms suspected to contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. It also shows differences between males and females, supporting the sexual dimorphism observed in the disorder. Combined with the previously reported study, the present data reinforce the face validity of the 3-hit model that will help to consider new therapeutic strategies for psychosis.  相似文献   
9.
The present work reports the realization of an analog fractional‐order phase‐locked loop (FPLL) using a fractional capacitor. The expressions for bandwidth, capture range, and lock range of the FPLL have been derived analytically and then compared with the experimental observations using LM565 IC. It has been observed that bandwidth and capture range can be extended by using FPLL. It has also been found that FPLL can provide faster response and lower phase error at the time of switching compared to its integer‐order counterpart. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
10.
Professional search in patent repositories poses several unique challenges. One key requirement is to search the entire affected space of concepts, following well-defined procedures to ensure traceability of results obtained. Several techniques have been introduced to enhance query generation, preferably via automated query term expansion, to improve retrieval effectiveness. Currently, these approaches are mostly limited to computing additional query terms from patent documents based on statistical measures. For conceptual search to solve the limitation of traditional keyword search standard dictionaries are used to provide synonyms and keyword phrases for query refinement. Studies show that these are insufficient in such highly specialized domains. In this paper, we present an approach to extract keyword phrases from query logs created during the validation procedure of the patent applications. This creates valuable domain-specific lexical databases for several specific patent classes that can be used to both expand as well as limit the scope of a patent search. This provides a more powerful means to guide a professional searcher through the search process. We evaluate the lexical databases based on real query sessions of patent examiners.  相似文献   
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